Judy Malloy

Classic Authoring

Book Reviews
Authoring Systems and Interfaces

Featured Sections:

The Electronic Manuscript

Social Media Narrative:
Issues in Contemporary Practice

Conferences and

The End(s) of Electronic Literature:
The 2015 Electronic Literature Organization Conference,
Bergen, Norway, August 4-7, 2015

Hold the Light:
The 2014 Electronic Literature Organization Conference,
Milwaukee, WI, June 2014

Dene Grigar
Documenting Curation
as Critical Practice

Pathfinders: 25 Years
of Experimental Literary Art, MLA2014 Convention, Chicago

Chercher le texte: the 2013 Conference of the Electronic Literature Organization Brings Electronic Literature to the Public in Paris, September 23-28

E-Poetry 2013, Kingston University, London in June; Program Features Presentations, Exhibitions, Performances, and a Pedagogy Colloquium

With a Theme of "Avenues of Access", MLA2013 Includes an Exhibition of Electronic Literature and over 60 Digital Humanities Panels

Remediating the Social, Edinburgh, November 1-3, 2012

Media Art
Exhibition to be Held
at WVU, June 20-23

Critical Code Studies
Working Group 2012
Reading Code in Context

Belgrade Resonate Festival
March 16-17, 2012

2012 MLA Convention to Feature Elit Panels and Exhibition

Dene Grigar, Lori Emerson,
and Kathi Inman Berens Impact Report for the
Electronic Literature Exhibit at MLA2012

Dangerous Readings
Explores Frontiers
of New Narrative

Elit Well Represented
at ISEA2011

Electronic Literature Organization Moves to MIT

A resource for academics and students, who are exploring the creation of electronic literature and social media-based narrative; for digital poets and writers, who are interested in how their colleagues approach their work; and for readers, who want to understand how electronic literature is created, the content | code | process project (formerly Authoring Software) is an ongoing collection of statements about how writers and artists create electronic literature.

April, 2017

A s Social media platforms become a core part --or some would say dominate -- the contemporary Internet environment, a focus on enabling creative voices in social media is an important component of enriching the Internet environment. Studying, conceiving, creating, and nurturing social media-based works is crucial for creative writers and artists; as well as for students, who will graduate into a world where social media is likely to remain a central part of their environment; and for people from all walks of life, who desire social media environments that foster learning, collaborative learning, activism, intelligent discourse, and the opportunity to experience contemporary scholarship and creative work.

In service of these communities of interest, it is a pleasure to announce that Networked Projects in the Formative Years of the Internet, a web archive created in conjunction with my MIT Press book, Social Media Archeology and Poetics, will be initiated next month -- here on content | code | process!

Calling for "equal capacity to receive and transmit" and a decentralized architecture, in Reverse Engineering Social Media, Robert W. Gehl stresses the need for users to collectively modify social media platforms to meet their own needs. "...if social media protocols provide us with a common language, we can use that language to discuss our common problems and find ways to modify social media software," he observes. [1]

Contingently, in The Social Machine, [2] Judith Donath reminds us of the time we spend online and asks us to consider existing social media system interfaces and to explore how we design and use them.

In service of all these goals, it is productive to study and analyze how contemporary social media not only empowers but also channels content. Additionally, because the predominantly non-profit preweb social media platforms built working systems that were run with communities in mind and in the process empowered a plethora of creative projects, it is apparent that not only was the publication of Social Media Archeology and Poetics important but also -- because the book is platform oriented -- comprehensive documentation of early social media-based creative projects will be useful to contemporary writers, artists, scholars and researchers.

That early social media platforms provided welcoming discussion and artmaking-conducive online environments is well documented in Social Media Archeology and Poetics, which provides a foundation for future study by historians, critics, and theorists. Details will be further set forth and explored in Networked Projects in the Formative Years of the Internet. For instance, how did the Electronic Café predict and inform 21st century social media when they linked the Korean, Chicano/a, African American, museum, and beach communities of Los Angeles to exchange video images and work together on an electronic writing tablet during the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics? What works did artists and writers such as John Cage, Judy Malloy, Jim Rosenberg, Fred Truck, and Anna Couey produce in the environment of Art Com Electronic Network (ACEN) on The WELL? For instance, how did artists -- such as Coco Fusco, Antonio Muntadas, Prema Murthy, Aki Fujiyoshi, Felix Huber, Philip Pocock, Rainer Ganahl, John Baldessari, and VNS Matrix -- work in the environment of THE THING?

How did Arts Wire's conferences -- such as NewMusNet, coordinated by composers Pauline Oliveros, Douglas Cohen, and David Mahler; Interactive Art, hosted by Anna Couey and myself (Judy Malloy); and the Native Arts Network Association, with core involvement from Atatl in Phoenix, AZ and funding from the Nathan Cummings Foundation -- incubate focused discussion and the making and distribution of art ? How did Arts Wire's creation of online components for the Fourth National Black Writers Conference work to create a hybrid experience on the theme of "Black Literature in the 90's: a Renaissance to End all Renaissances" ? What was the role of Arts Wire's diverse Steering Committee -- such as Jane Bello, Association of Hispanic Arts; Randy Ross, American Indian Telecommunications; Louis LeRoy, Association of American Cultures and Dan Martin, Director of the Master of Arts Management Program at Carnegie Mellon University -- in fostering diversity and nurturing the arts? What was the role of Anne Focke's extraordinary vision in the Arts Wire project as a whole?

What was the role of Artur Matuck's Reflux project in International cooperation and art making?

What is the access to the archiving of Leonardo's early online publications, which played a core role in the development of art and technology?


1. Robert W. Gehl, Reverse Engineering Social Media: Software, Culture, and Political Economy in New Media Capitalism, Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2014. p.115
2. Judith Donath, The Social Machine, Designs for Living Online, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2014.

In the cover image, the computer room is a detail of a photo by Carol M. Highsmith. Courtesy the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

The rich underlying environment of research and development in communications technologies in the late 1970's, the 1980's, and the early 1990's not only produced ground breaking arts and humanities-focused virtual communities, such as the Electronic Café, ACEN, Arts Wire, and THE THING, but also was paralleled by a plethora of individual and collaborative telematic projects, such as Bill Bartlett's I.P. Sharp (IPSA)-carried 1979 Interplay, in which, from terminals in every city that participated, artists dialogued on the subject of computer culture; Roy Ascott's networked fairy tale, La Plissure du Texte; Karen O'Rourke's Paris-based City Projects, that connected artists, students and teachers in eleven Universities on three continents; and the Digital Art Exchange Group (DAX), which connected performing artists in Pittsburgh and Dakar in DAX Dakar d'Accord.

In Boston, Do while Studio, was founded by Jennifer Hall in 1985. Directed by Hall and her partner Blyth Hazen, over the years, Do While Studio has fostered innovative and collaborative projects, such as World Wide Simultaneous Dance, produced by Laura Knott, in which live dance and digital connectivity combined to connect people dancing at the same time-- all around the world. [3]

In Italy, inside a cave outside the "Antro della Sibilla" in the acropolis in Cuma (Naples), in 1988, Marcello Aitaini positioned twelve computers to form an "S", the first letter of the word "Sibyl". In his description of this project (which will be included in Networked Projects in the Formative Years of the Internet), he writes:

"The visual components are not videotaped, but produced by digital programs on the basis of Scritture p/neumatiche; shapes and colors are developed ad libitum in ever new dynamic configurations. People can stop, walk around, listen to it, go away and come back; they will always discover new acoustic and visual situations."

In Northern California, in the early 1990's Brian Andreas produced Hall of Whispers:

"HALL OF WHISPERS takes its name from an ancient Babylonian myth of a specially constructed room in one of the ziggurats where a whisper would stay alive forever. I have an image of the electronic networks whispering ceaselessly with the voices of these times. The form of the project is deceptively simple: I wanted to create a situation where a group of people could share the experience of living, where we could join each other around a technological campfire, for the profoundly human act of storytelling." [4]

Networked Projects in the Formative Years of the Internet will document individual and collective pre-web projects by researchers, artists, writers, and scholars, including in addition to those listed above, many others, such as the early work of Eduardo Kac; AFRONET, an echomail backbone supported by African and African-American BBS Sysops across North America; Bonnie Sherk's Living Library; and Lori Ann Two Bulls' (Ogala Lakota) NAPLPS graphics.


3 Jennifer Hall and Blyth Hazen: "Do While Studio", in Judy Malloy, ed. Women, Art & Technology. Cambridge, MA, 2003. pp. 290-301.
4. Brian Andreas, HALL OF WHISPERS Leonardo. 3:1, 1993.

With a focus on platforms and communities, in Social Media Archeology and Poetics (MIT Press, August 2016), the words and work of creative computer scientists writers, artists, musicians, historians, and digital humanists -- from Lee Felsenstein in Northern California to Madeline Gonzalez Allen in Colorado; from Annick Bureaud in Paris to Geert Lovink in Amsterdam -- not only demonstrate how social media evolved from both individual and collaborative efforts but also document the lineage of a wide range of social media affordances.

Concentrating on vision and mission as expressed in individual and small collaborative projects, Networked Projects in the Formative Years of the Internet will build on and supplement Social Media Archeology and Poetics.

A resource that as a whole will add significantly to the study of proto-and early Internet usage in the cultural sphere, Networked Projects in the Formative Years of the Internet will also seek to include projects created/facilitated by ARPANET-era researchers, such as Yumyum and SF-Lovers; projects created/facilitated by humanities scholars, such as NINCH-Announce and Postmodern Culture; alternative approaches, such as Peter D'Agostino's Proposal for Qube; and contributions from arts writers, curators, and innovators, including among many others, Anne Focke, Darlene Tong, Art McGee, Omar Wasow, Richard Lowenberg, and Eric Theise. It will also reference other core sources of documentation, such as Heidi Grundmann's seminal Art Telecommunication and Roy Ascott's Telematic Embrace: Visionary Theories of Art, Technology, and Consciousness (ed./intro: Edward A. Shanken).

March, 2017

Featured Paper:

Interview with Sonya Rapoport

I n November, 2009, content | code | process interviewed artist Sonya Rapoport (1923-2015) about her work that used drawing, painting, text and cross-cultural imagery to create audience participatory interactive installations, as well as web works and artists books.

Sonya's works included Shoe-Field, an interactive installation that created computer plots of people's responses to their shoes; Objects on My Dresser, an interactive installation in which she worked with a psychiatric social worker to correlate the meaning of personal objects, creating a "netweb" of responses; The Animated Soul, an interactive computer-assisted installation based on The Egyptian Book of the Dead; and Biorhythm, where artwork about biorhythm was correlated with participant's responses about "how they were feeling". For this interview she chose to focus on Biorhythm, and in the course of the Interview, she talked in detail about the process she used to create this complex audience participatory work.

Towards the end of the interview I asked: "So what was the final form of Biorhythm? How did you incorporate the responses into the work?"

Sonya Rapoport:

I produced two "hand" books, triggered by this event, one for each artwork. But let us now return to my questions about audience participation that I introduced at the beginning of this interview:

Why was I propelled to invite an audience to share my personal experience?

I wondered about the validity of a self-evaluation of my emotional condition. Could it be overridden by the computer's biorhythm analysis. I wanted to test this on other people's experience. After the participation only a few participants could guess their emotional condition that matched the computer analysis. We had many blue ribbons left over.

What would the artistic outcome be as a result of applying other people's input into my scheme?

I was stimulated to create artwork from the results of the Biorhythm production. The long vellum sheet became a work of art in itself after I pasted the portrait photos on another vellum sheet beside the participants' identity numbers. A stern "computer" voice over declared the correct condition of the individual as judged by the computer. An accompanying book in the form of a hand hung on the wall. The palm reader's remarks, written on index cards, were included in the book. "The Computer says I feel", was exhibited in the group show S/F San Francisco/Science Fiction. It traveled from the San Francisco Art Commission Gallery to the Clock Tower, New York City, and the Otis Art Institute in Los Angeles.

In a future elaborate interactive installation, Digital Mudra, I compared the photographs of the biorhythm gestures with their East Indian counterparts in the Mudra Gesture language library and matched their assigned meanings with the verbal expressions of the Biorhythm participants. They correlated almost 100 per cent.

In preparation for the Digital Mudra installation I sent out a list of these Mudra word meanings to artists. They were to compose a poem using three of the listed Mudra Words. You were among those who received the list. I recall that one word that you selected was "rice" because you used it in a unique way. I invited a Kathakali dancer to "dance" these poems for a videotape as part of the installation. This aspect of the installation was to illustrate the concept of going from images to words and from words to back to images.

Lastly, how did audience participation change and enrich the artistic outcome?

There would have been no further artistic expression if the audience participation didn't occur.

Editor's note: It is with much sadness that I write that Sonya Rapaport died in June 2015. The primary source for information on her work is now The Sonya Rapoport Legacy Trust

The complete content | code | process interview with Sonya Rapaport is available here

February, 2017

This issue of content | code | process introduces a new section on Social Media Narrative: Issues in Contemporary Practice.

Hosted by Judy Malloy and the Rutgers Camden Digital Studies Center (DSC) Class in Social Media Narrative, from November 16 - 21, 2016, a Social Media Narrative: Issues in Contemporary Practice Facebook-based panel brought together a distinguished group of innovative creators, theorists, and researchers in the field of contemporary social media-based creative practice.

Thanks to DSC Director, Jim Brown, and DSC Associate Director, Robert Emmons, the DSC Facebook group, offered an informal meeting place that allowed students and panelists to come together in a familiar environment that everyone was comfortable with negotiating. There was an audience of other DSC group members; some of whom participated in the discussion from time to time. And while the panel was taking place, interwoven posts of events by other DSC group members enriched the information stream.

In real-time, a Facebook-based panel is lively and stimulating, changeable, and live-jazz-unpredictable. And it should be noted that Jay Bushman's (on the panel) observations regarding the difficulties of creating audience-useable archives of social media-based works are applicable also to a Facebook panel -- where no conversation is going on in isolation, and when it is in progress, readers simultaneously experience and/or participate in different conversations.

This does not mean that a Facebook-based panel cannot be differently archived. The special section of content | code | process on Social Media Narrative: Issues in Contemporary Practice includes pages for all 17 of the panelists with their bios and their opening statement to the panel. Additionally, pdf's of the entire conversations are attached as transcripts to each panelist's page.

In reviewing the panel transcripts, two areas of study came to the forefront. One was the diverse interesting approaches of creators to their social media-based creative work, including their relationships with their audiences and communities; the other was concerns about the hazards of the social media environment.

An introduction, an informal creative practice tour through the transcripts, begins with the former and concludes with the later.

Addressed are: issues in writing on social media as creative practice (Rob Wittig, Dene Grigar, Deena Larsen, Jay Bushman); the role of audience and community (Chindu Sreedharan, Marco Williams, Alice Wong, Judith Adele); approaches to code and technology (Chris Rodley, Robert Emmons); mixed social media environments: performance, painting, photography (Joy Garnett, Matt Held, Katrin Tiidenberg); the social media environment: trolls and harassment (Jim Brown, Antoinette LaFarge, Mark Marino); and content ownership (Cathy Marshall).

There is a large body of criticism, theory, and practice on electronic literature as a whole, but the approaches of social media narrators to their work are sparsely documented. On the Social Media Narrative panel, statements and responses to questions provided initial insight into the varieties of creative authoring practice of artists, writers, producers, and performers who work in contemporary social media-based narrative -- contributing to an understanding of the potential for creative work on social media platforms.

Social Media Narrative: Panelists' Pages

Social Media Narrative: Complete Introduction

January, 2017

Featured Paper:

Interview with Stuart Moulthrop

Stuart Moulthrop: detail from Under Language, Iowa Review Web, 2008.

O ne of the first creators of new media literature and a distinguished new media writer, digital artist, and scholar, Baltimore, Maryland native Stuart Moulthrop is the author of the seminal hyperfiction Victory Garden, (Eastgate, 1991) a work that Robert Coover included in the "golden age" of electronic literature.

His works -- that include Hegirascope, (1995) Reagan Library, (1999) Pax, (2003) Under Language, (2007) and Deep Surface (2007) -- have been exhibited and or published by Eastgate, The Iowa Web Review, the ELO Electronic Literature Collection; New River; Media Ecology; The New Media Reader; Washington State University Vancouver; and the Digital Arts and Culture Conference. Two of his works have won prizes in the Ciutat de Vinaros international competition.

Stuart Moulthrop has served as a Professor in the School of Information Arts and Technologies at the University of Baltimore where he was the Director of the undergraduate Simulation and Digital Entertainment program. He is currently a Professor in the Department of English University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

He has also served as co-editor for Postmodern Culture, was co-founder of the TINAC electronic arts collective, and was a founding director of the Electronic Literature Organization. He is co-author (with Dene Grigar) of the forthcoming MIT Press book, Traversals - The Use of Preservation for Early Electronic Writing.

In this literate and cyber-literate interview, where, as in the reading of poetry, the reader must occasionally interpret the allusions to other works -- from contemporary literature to philosophy to computer manuals -- Moulthrop recounts the founding of TINAC, the writing of Victory Garden, the founding (with Nancy Kaplan) of a department of Information Arts and Technologies at the University of Baltimore, and the creation with Flash ActionScript of his textual instrument Under Language. And he looks to the future of electronic literature.

Visit stuart-moulthrop.html to read the interview.

October, 2016

Figure 1. Paragraph View from the Zibaldone Hypertext Research Platform Website

October Featured Paper

Silvia Stoyanova and Ben Johnston
The Zibaldone Hypertext Research Platform

Software: HTML,TEI and associated XML technologies

T he Zibaldone Hypertext Research Platform (currently available at http://digitalzibaldone.net) is a digital reconstruction of the hypertextual design inherent in the research notebook (Zibaldone) of the acclaimed nineteenth century Italian poet and scholar Giacomo Leopardi. The project was undertaken at Princeton University in the Fall of 2010 by Dr. Silvia Stoyanova (French and Italian) and Ben Johnston. (Humanities Resource Center) Consultant: Dr. Clifford Wulfman, Coordinator of Library Digital Initiatives.

In its larger scope, the project studies the structure of this fragmentary text and its author's techniques for its semantic organization as a model for adopting hypertext to mediate the phenomenological method and relativistic thought procedure at work in migrating similar research note collections into argumentative narrative. This objective indeed recalls the original conception of hypertext by Ted Nelson as a medium for capturing the many possible trajectories in the course of developing an argument, instead of sacrificing them because of the limitations of the two-dimensional space of paper. It was precisely in an attempt to overcome the same limitations that Leopardi interspersed his notebook with thousands of cross-references, linking its apparently fragmented passages, creating the blueprint of a virtual hypertext. [1] [Figure 1]

Although its title and to some extent its contents reflect the humanist compiling of commonplace books, (in which readers and scholars extracted quotations from their readings) the Zibaldone is more akin to the modern intellectual diary and further exhibits features of the present-day academic blog, such as a date stamp and thematic tags for each entry. While Leopardi was noting down observations and commenting on books without an immediate objective in mind, at the same time he was also recording their connections to previous reflections and intended to eventually rework his material into formally cohesive discourses on a great variety of subjects -- from linguistics, to social mores, to aesthetic theory. For this purpose, he indexed his material thematically and added more cross-references between passages while re-reading.

Figure 2. 1827 Index is a detail of the beginning of the index Giacomo Leopardi wrote in 1827 for his Zibaldone. (as implemented on the Zibaldone Hypertext Research Platform) "1827 index" has about 800 themes and subthemes.

For the complete paper on The Zibaldone Hypertext Research Platform, visit zibaldone_htplatform.html

September, 2016

In a parallel era of changing approaches to reading and writing, the analogy of computer-mediated literature as electronic manuscript emphasizes the written word in a visual context. Contingently, there are works of electronic literature that incorporate elements of medieval manuscripts -- innovatively bringing an earlier age's emphasis on the visual presentation of words into the present.

Detail from Rob Kendall's The Soothcircuit, an electronic forecasting manuscript, created anew by each user. When s/he selects from the components of Battery, Lamp, Sky, Antenna, Resistor, Transistor, Speaker, Capacitor, and Ground, in response, The Soothcircuit builds intricate structures of visual text in an interactive generative structure. In Kendall's words:

"As the text moves down the screen, it emerges from darkness and grows more prominent, paralleling the dynamics of its content. The text in the North (top) position represents something hidden, vague, or obscure -- perhaps a distant source or goal. The text in the East (right) position represents something emergent. The text in the South position represents the element that dominates the reading. The text in the West represents something waning or receding." [1]

W ith their visual impact and their surprisingly beautiful emphasis on words, medieval manuscripts, are a cogent field of study and inspiration for the creation of electronic text. Additionally, the phrase "electronic manuscript" is increasingly apt in describing works -- such as Matt Huynh's vertical scrolling The Boat, (adapted from Nam Le's The Boat) in which a harrowing narrative of Vietnamese "boat people" refugees unfolds amidst animated falling rain, storm-rocking graphics, voiced laments, light and dark, moving text, and floating images. Rather than clearly fitting an established category (generative literature, hypertext literature, or interactive fiction, for instance) electronic manuscripts explore innovative ways of combining words and images on the computer screen.

"...until the new age and science of composition had been in existence some little time we could hardly expect to find that the contemporary writers possessed a vocabulary of agreed technical terms by which they could explain exactly what they were discussing," Dom Anselm Hughes writes in Early Medieval Music up to 1300. [2] Today, we are in a similar era of developing vocabularies to describe works of electronic literary art. Hughes' suggestion (in Early Medieval Music) to look at the works themselves is a useful approach.

A comparison of electronic literature with manuscript creation in a medieval past that was surprisingly technical in its practice is of contingent interest. For instance, in the opening sections to Introduction to Manuscript Studies [3] the documented progressions from papyrus making technologies, to paper making technologies, to the preparation of parchment -- the evolving copying technologies, the changes in instructions for the creation of initials -- are potent ancient echoes of the progression of HTML standards, the emergence of CSS, and evolving image display affordances.

Focusing on manuscript-like uses of dense and/or visual text and/or text and images, and/or horizontal or vertical scrolling, among other manuscript attributes, an exploration of different approaches to the electronic manuscript will continue to be presented in this content | code | process exhibition, which was begun in 2011 and has since been updated every few years.

Medieval manuscripts are not a source or inspiration for all of the works presented here. Nevertheless, in a similar era of changing ways of reading and writing, each work in this exhibition is of interest as regards creative practice in electronic literature. It should, however, be noted that this exploratory content | code | process website does not at this point intend to definitively categorize contemporary creative practice; rather it presents a diverse selection of examples for continuing study.

First presented at the 2002 Electronic Literature Organization Conference at UCLA, Talking Cure is a collaborative work by Noah Wardrip-Fruin, with Camille Utterback, Clilly Castiglia, and Nathan Wardrip-Fruin. Central to this interactive installation are intense portraits of the seated-in-a-chair viewer, created with three color-coded layers of text from sources such as Joseph Breuer's case study of Anna O. As the viewer participates/is immersed in a history of the "talking cure" in psychoanalysis, the hand written texts created during the Middle Ages to be read orally to the laity, [4] are echoed in the interaction of psychiatrist and patient and viewer -- in a contemporary three-dimensional text/image/audio dominated environment.

Detailed on Noah Wardrip-Fruin's website at http://www.hyperfiction.org/talkingcure/index.html, Talking Cure is a starting place for a look at contemporary electronic manuscripts. Information about how it was created is available in Roberto Simanowski's interview with Noah Wardrip-Fruin on artificial.dk at http://www.artificial.dk/articles/wardripfruin.htm

"The story is set just before the French Revolution in an alternate, magical universe."

In Emily Short's First Draft of the Revolution, (prototyped and produced by Liza Daly; final development and visual design: inkle) the narrative unfolds on letters which appear magically to hundreds-of-miles away recipients -- as if they were electronic mail. But immersed in the illusion of the ancient substrate of paper, our perception of the process is altered.

Warning that "It is dangerous to deceive a husband of magic-using rank..." the narrative opens with a letter to her husband from the primary correspondent, Juliette, who in Short's words "has been banished for the summer to a village above Grenoble: a few Alpine houses, a deep lake, blue sky, and no society." As the reader joins Juliette and her correspondents in the letter writing process, the necessity to work with the composition of the letters (they cannot be sent without interactive editing) involves the reader in an increasingly potent exchange of letters, one that parallels the power of ubicomp surveillance in our own world, while with the illusion of "linking paper" at the same time it conveys the past.

For the complete content | code | process exhibition on The Electronic Manuscript, visit elec_manuscript.html

August, 2016

40 Phone Lines, 10 Minitels, and Assorted Answering Machines at the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris
and Other Museum-Situated Early Telematic Artists' Projects

Running parallel to ARPANET research and development, artists' initial telematic authoring strategies, from the late 1970's to the early 1980's, had at their core the creation of systems that explored the idea of interactive communication. At a time when "social sculpture" and the idea of communication itself were predominant -- the situating of telematic art projects in a museum context seems unexpected. However, in hindsight, museum installations not only forced a view of telematic art in the context of artwork but also explored mixed virtual and reality authoring systems, as well as artist-imagined interfaces to such systems.

Indeed, museum-connected projects such as Roy Ascott's La Plissure du Texte, initiated in July 1983 as a part of the Electra exhibition at Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, and the Electronic Café, commissioned as a 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Arts Festival Project by the Museum of Contemporary Art, were core in the development of the field.

L'Espace Communicant

In her paper "Art and Minitel in France in the '80s" (forthcoming in Social Media Archeology and Poetics), French critic and curator Annick Bureaud documents L'Espace Communicant, for which artist Fred Forest installed 40 phone lines, 10 minitels, and assorted answering machines at the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris as a part of the Electra exhibition, curated by Frank Popper.

Forest advertised the phone numbers and Minitel access information in newspapers and on the radio. Visitors entering L'Espace Communicant were immersed in a communications environment, where they were confronted with the real-life interface possibilities of answering or using the phones, responding to posts, or sending email on the minitels. Many of these communications were audible in the museum.

La Plissure du Texte

Under the auspices of the same Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris exhibition, in contrast to Fred Forest's place-situated information environment, in 1983 on the I.P. Sharp ARTEX Network -- with participant characters in 11 cities including . Pittsburgh, Vancouver, Vienna, San Francisco, and Toronto -- British artist and telematics theorist Roy Ascott produced the collaboratively-created fairy tale, La Plissure du Texte.

In general, this work has stood outside of the history of electronic literature, perhaps because for the era the distributed authoring system so radically ceded authorial control, perhaps because of the print-based nature of the output, which was mostly realized on continuous feed paper. (although reportedly, Norman White did make a disc copy) Nevertheless, in the lineage of social media narrative, La Plissure du Texte is a landmark work.

Ascott, who was at the time in Paris, initiated the project as the "Magician", and each node participated as a character -- for instance in Pittsburgh, Bruce Breland and the DAX group as the "Prince" and in Vienna, Helmut Mark and Robert Adrian X as the "Sorcerer's Apprentice".

In his initial July 18 "call", the authoring system is described by Ascott in this way:


He specified the role of the nodes as follows:


In Heidi Grundmann's seminal Art Telecommunication, Ascott notes that "The title of the project alludes, of course, to Roland Barthes' book 'Le Plaisir du Texte' but pleating (plissure) is not intended to replace pleasure (plaisir) only to amplify and enhance it."[2]


The idea of museum venues for early telematic art probably began at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, in February 1980, a few years earlier than the Paris-based Electra exhibition. Produced by telematics pioneer Bill Bartlett, and under the direction of Carl Loeffler, the director of La Mamelle/Art Com, the SFMOMA-hosted exhibition, ARTISTS USE OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, had -- placing two-way slow-scanned video transmission side by side with text-based telematic communication -- presciently explored the affordances of telecommunication systems for artists.

The system -- as described by Hank Bull in his paper "Dictati)on: A Canadian Perspective on the History of Telematic Art" (forthcoming in Social Media Archeology and Poetics)-- was as follows:

"Nine cities were connected on two parallel telephone conferences. Each took turns transmitting images while the other nodes received. At the same time, a text-based conference took place via the I.P. Sharp network. The network nodes were San Francisco (SFMOMA, Art Com), Vancouver (Western Front), Toronto (Norman White, Trinity Square Video), Boston (Aldo Tembellini, MIT), New York (Willoughby Sharp), Bristol (Roy Ascott), Vienna (Robert Adrian), Honolulu (John Southworth), Sydney (Eric Gidney) and Tokyo (Michael Goldberg, Tsukuba University)."

Installed 36 years ago, networked parallel streams of image and text remain of interest in the context of mixed authoring systems. Additionally, the museum venue was important in defining how telematic art was situated in this era. As, with his usual enthusiasm, Loeffler noted in an interview on Art Com Electronic Network (ACEN): "The event is major in the history of art, because it was the 'first' time this activity found its way to a museum. We interacted with these locations from SF MOMA, and it was great." [3]

The Electronic Café

In 1984 at the Los Angeles Olympic Arts Festival, Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowitz began a long-running project that focused on the community aspects of computer communications. At the Olympics, their project -- The Electronic Café -- was officially commissioned by the Los Angeles, Museum of Contemporary Art. (MOCA) As documented in Steve Durland's High Performance interview, "Defining the Image as Place, A conversation with Kit Galloway, Sherrie Rabinowitz, and Gene Youngblood":

The Electronic Café linked MOCA and five ethnically diverse communities of Los Angeles through a state-of-the-art telecommunications computer database and dial-up image bank designed as a cross-cultural, multi-lingual network of "creative conversation." From MOCA downtown, and the real cafes located in the Korean community, Hispanic community, black community and beach communities of Los Angeles, people separated by distance could send and receive slow-scan video images, draw or write together with an electronic writing tablet, print hard-copy pictures with the video printer, enter information or ideas in the computer database and retrieve it with Community Memory(TM) keyword search, and store or retrieve images on a videodisc recorder which held 20,000 images. Electronic Cafe ran six hours a day, six days a week for seven weeks.[4]

Thus, radiating from a Museum commission at the Olympics, artists' use of telecommunications had begun to more solidly connect diverse communities.[5]


1.Documentation of ARTEX Projects, including those by Robert Adrian X and Norman White, is available in Telematic Connections: The Virtual Embrace, Walker Art Center, 2001. Curated by Steve Dietz. This exhibition (both travelling and web-based) includes the text of La Plissure du Texte.
Ascott's "call" for the project is available on the "ARTEX - ARTISTS' ELECTRONIC EXCHANGE SYSTEM, 1980 - 1990: A Short History" website.

2. Roy Ascott, "Art and Telematics," in Heidi Grundmann, ed.,Art Telecommunication, Vancouver: Western Front; Vienna: BLIX, 1984, p. 35.

3. Judy Malloy, "Keeping the Art Faith, Interview with Carl Loeffler", Art Com Electronic Network, on The WELL, January 11-20, 1988.

4. Steven Durland, "Defining the Image as Place, A conversation with Kit Galloway, Sherrie Rabinowitz, and Gene Youngblood" [Social Media Archeology and Poetics] First published in High Performance #37 (1987): 52-59.

5. As documented by Lee Felsenstein, in "Community Memory -- The First Public-Access Social Media System" (forthcoming in Social Media Archeology and Poetics) Community Memory begun in Berkeley, was primary in setting the stage for community networking.

July, 2016

Featured Authoring Software Statement:
Dan Waber
a kiss
Software: Twine

Dan Waber is a poet, playwright, publisher, and multimedia artist, whose work is predominantly language-based.

Waber's works of electronic literature include Strings, presented in Flash and published in the Electronic Literature Collection v. 1; the collaborative hypertext, that reminds me; and the brief, dense, fluxuating poems in his elegant collection cantoos.

a kiss, an innovative use of the freeware hypertext application Twine, was published in 2013 in Drunken Boat 17.

In his statement for Authoring Software, Waber explains that "You begin at the center of all things, the moment of a kiss and are able to move outward from that moment in several directions. Each choice leads to more choices, the further away you move, until at the outermost limit all possible choices lead back to the moment of a kiss."

Visit Dan Waber's Authoring Software statement on a kiss to find out more.

June, 2016

Next Horizons:
The 2016 Electronic Literature Organization Conference,
Victoria, BC, June 10 - 12, 2016

Detail from Barbara Bridger and J.R. Carpenter, Notes Very Necessary 2015. Notes Very Necessary, which will be on exhibit in the ELO2016 Festival exhibition, is a collaboratively authored, horizontally scrolling electronic manuscript. In their words, the work "aims to address climate change by remixing images, text, and data generated by centuries of imperialist, colonialist, capitalist, and scientific exploration in the Arctic."

Looking to the future of electronic literature, in sessions such as "Emergent Media", Next Horizons, the 2016 Electronic Literature Organization Conference, (ELO2016) explores new possibilities for the evolving field of electronic literature, while in sessions such as "Historical and Critical Perspectives" contingently highlighting its rich lineage.

ELO2016 will convene at the University of Victoria in Victoria, British Columbia from June 10-12, 2016 and this year is hosted through a partnership between the Electronic Literature Organization (ELO) and the Digital Humanities Summer Institute. (DHSI) Co-Chairs: are Dene Grigar (Washington State University Vancouver) and Ray Siemens. (University of Victoria) The Artistic Director is Caitlin Fisher. (York University)

"We are siblings, ELO and DHSI," ELO President Dene Grigar emphasizes in a statement that concludes this article. "Both organizations were founded in the same year and both work at the intersection of digital technologies and the Humanities with interests in scholarship and creative practice."

The conference will bring together scholarship and practice in the field with papers representing many points of view, by Philippe Bootz; (Université Paris 8) John Cayley; (Brown University) Leonardo Flores; (University of Puerto Rico Mayaguez Campus); Aynur Kadir; (Simon Fraser University) Deena Larsen; (Independent Artist) Mark Marino;(USC) James O'Sullivan; (University of Sheffield) Kate Pullinger; (Bath Spa University) and Jody Zellen, (Independent Artist) among many others.

Next Horizons opens with two featured papers: electronic literature pioneer Stuart Moulthrop's "Intimate Mechanics: Play and Meaning in the Middle of Electronic Literature" and Assistant Professor of Digital Media at the University of Central Florida Anastasia Salter's "Code before Content? Brogrammer Culture in Games and Electronic Literature" -- followed by a Festival Gallery opening and a lunch reception.

Setting the stage for three days of scholars' and artists' papers on contemporary electronic literature and future directions -- from "Medium and Meaning A Critical Look at E-Lit Literary Games"; to "Subversive Texts"; to "Beyond Collaborative Horizons" -- a Keynote Session will address "Prototyping Resistance: Wargame Narrative and Inclusive Feminist Discourse."

The role of labs is of increasing interest in electronic literature research and pedagogy. A panel on "E-Lit Labs" will include Jim Brown, Rutgers University Camden; Robert Emmons, Rutgers University Camden; Brian Greenspan, Carleton University; Stephanie Boluk, UC Davis; and Patrick LeMieux, UC Davis.

Contingently, as the archive becomes a core source not only for critics and curators but also in pedagogical practice, chaired by Dene Grigar, "Best Practices for Archiving E-Lit" will feature, in addition to Grigar, Stuart Moulthrop, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee; Matthew Kirschenbaum, University of Maryland College Park; and Judy Malloy, Digital Studies Fellow, Rutgers University Camden.

"Feminist Horizons" will be explored by Kathi Inman Berens, Portland State University; Jessica Pressman, San Diego State University; and Caitlin Fisher. A session on "Narratives and Narrativity" will feature Illya Szilak, Independent Scholar: "Narrativity in Virtual Reality;" David Ciccoricco, University of Otago: "Simulation Studies;" and Caitlin Fisher: "Future Fiction Storytelling Machines."

Other speakers in a wide variety of panels, roundtables, poster sessions and artists talks are Sandy Baldwin, Rochester Institute of Technology; Alice Bell, Sheffield Hallam University; Jim Bizzocchi, Simon Fraser University; Serge Bouchardon, Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de Compiègne; Lauren Burr, University of Waterloo; Shane Denson, Duke University; Jeremy Douglass, UC Santa Barbara; Astrid Ensslin, University of Alberta; Samantha Gorman, USC; Ian Hatcher, Independent Artist; Davin Heckman, Winona State University; Riham Hosny, Rochester Institute of Technology/Minia University; Andrew Koblucar, New Jersey Institute of Technology; Kari Kraus, University of Maryland; Will Luers, Washington State University Vancouver; Marjorie Luesebrink, Independent Artist; Liz Losh, College of William and Mary; Piotr Marecki, Jagiellonian University; Mark Marino, USC; Èlika Ortega, University of Kansas; Allison Parrish, Fordham University; Scott Rettberg, University of Bergen; Chris Rodley, University of Sydney; Mark Sample, Davidson College; Rui Torres, University Fernando Pessoa; Zach Whalen, University of Mary Washington; Rob Wittig, Meanwhile...Netprov Studio; and Mia Zamora, Kean University, among many others. A complete list is on the Schedule at http://elo2016.com

On Saturday, British digital writer, artist, and developer of playable stories, Christine Wilks, will deliver a keynote on "Interactive Narrative and the Art of Steering Through Possible Worlds." Saturday night at ELO2016 is a banquet and a dance at the University of Victoria Faculty Club.

"It is heartening to bring the tribe back together every year for this event and to continue to expand its ranks," Dene Grigar observes. "Old friends, new friends -- we all converge to celebrate the art and scholarship of electronic literature."

"We are siblings, ELO and DHSI," ELO President Dene Grigar emphasizes in a statement that concludes this article. "Both organizations were founded in the same year and both work at the intersection of digital technologies and the Humanities with interests in scholarship and creative practice."

Complete Story.....

May Featured Work:
María Mencía
Birds Singing Other Birds Songs
Software: Flash, Illustrator, Audacity

María Mencía is an artist-researcher and Senior Lecturer in New Media Theory and Digital Media Practice in the School of Performance and Screen Studies at Kingston University, London. Encompassing language, visual art, and sound, her work in digital poetics is experimental, textual, and generative. It has been presented, exhibited, and published internationally, including the International Symposium on Electronic Art; (ISEA) onedotzero; Electronic Language International Festival; (FILE) International Contemporary Art Fair, Madrid; (ARCO) Computers in Art and Design Education; (CADE) Caixaforum; E-Poetry 2013; Cherchez le Texte, the 2013 Conference of the Electronic Literature Organization, Paris; the TATE Modern; the Electronic Literature Collection; and the Anthology of European Electronic Literature.

She describes her process in this way:

"It draws from avant-garde poetics remediating concepts of reading and writing, exploring new literacies through the production of creative projects and digital media grammars (voice activation, use of webcam, use of mouse, acts of revealing, triggering, cut and paste, dragging) for interactivity, aesthetics, engagement and meaning production. It is trans-disciplinary, bringing together different cultural, artistic and literary traditions such as: linguistics, fine art, visual, concrete, and sound poetry, with digital poetics, electronic writing, and new media art theories and practices."

In Birds Singing Other Birds Songs, she explores a translation process in which the songs of birds are translated into language and then translated back to bird songs via the human voice. In the resultant work, the viewer interactively sets animated bird shapes in motion. Creating an innovative user-controlled experience, they sing the sound of their own text, while flying across the blue-sky screen.

Visit María Mencía's
content | code | process statement
to find out more

April, 2016

April Featured Work:
Andrew Plotkin
Hoist Sail for the Heliopause and Home
Software: Inform7

W riter/programmer Andrew Plotkin is the author of a series of award-winning works of Interactive Fiction, (IF) including Shade, Spider and Web, and The Dreamhold. An integral member of the IF community, he also helps support the software systems with which contemporary IF is created.

Plotkin has worked on game design and game tools his entire life, though mostly outside of the game industry and academic worlds. With his recently released Hadean Lands, a complex Interactive Fiction that was four years in the making, he continues to pursue in his words "a (perhaps chimerical) career as a creator of narrative interaction on mobile platforms."

For content | code | process, he writes about his IF Hoist Sail for the Heliopause and Home. (2010) Created with Inform 7, Heliopause, winner of the 2010 XYZZY Awards for Best Writing, presents the reader, as do most IFs, with narrative descriptions and prompts, but the language -- based on classic science fiction -- is different/evocative, and the forward motion of The Horizon of Night drives a continually interactive process, as the reader enters phrases at the prompts, and the story responds.

Andrew Plotkin: Hoist Sail for the Heliopause and Home

H eliopause is primarily concerned with tone. Its language is drawn from the lyrical science fiction of the early 1970s (which was itself concerned with evoking high fantasy and fable into the science-fictional mode). I obliquely reference Jack Williamson and George R. R. Martin; Vance and Zelazny lurk inescapably behind them.

The language distances the story, already made distant in time and space, and so does the SFnal scene-setting. The form of space travel, the level of technology, even the species of the protagonist -- all are presented allusively, as fabulous imagery rather than speculative fact. The game then marks this distance to the IF player in two ways: First, the scale of presentation: a game location is not the breadth of one room or hallway, as in traditional IF, but one planet, then one solar system, then one nebula or cluster of stars.......complete statement

March, 2016

c ontent | code | process revisits its gently updated review of Brenda Laurel's classic The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design.

"If it is to be like magical paper, then it is the magical part that is all important and that must be most strongly attended to in the user interface design," Alan Kay writes about the computer screen in his chapter "User Interface: A Personal View". Kay also looks at Marshall McLuhan's ideas on how the printing press changed the thought patterns of those who learned to read, observing that "What McLuhan was really saying was that if the personal computer is a truly new medium then the very use of it would actually change the thought patterns of an entire civilization."

..........Complete review

February, 2016

February Featured Work
William Harris
Hyper Poems
Software: Microsoft marquee

W illiam Harris (1926-2009) taught classics at Middlebury College in Vermont for thirty-two years. A sculptor, composer, and poet, when he retired in 1990, he worked with computers -- compiling an electronic Latin dictionary, Humanist's Latin Dictionary, that was published by Centaur, as well as a series of experimental electronic poems and image/text works.

"I want a poem to be meditated, not read through," he writes in his essay for content | code | process. "So by taking it off the page and making it a variable field of words, I think we are trying something new and something possibly very interesting."

"Thus," he observes,

"each poem is continually evolving out of its own internal history, which at times may give a very different appearance to the whole display on the screen. The first appearance will be even like any text. Next some lines will start to go in different directions, and some will have a different programmed speed while others re-speed themselves later. Later, as a surprise, groups of words may possibly arrange themselves to the right and left of the screen leaving the center empty, or they may all congregate centrally before starting to wander sideways. The interesting thing about this variability is that as the poem progresses, more of the text obeys the internal patterning generated by the running program, and less and less the initial pattern which I have set up."

A World War II Veteran, Harris, who had been battling cancer for several years, died at the age of 83 in February 2009.

To read his complete statement, visit William Harris: Hyper Poems

January, 2016

January Featured Work:
Adriene Jenik

"Committed", in her words, "to using and abusing new last technologies", Adriene Jenik is an award-winning media artist, filmmaker, and educator. Currently Professor and Director of the School of Art at the Herberger Institute for Design and the Arts, part of Arizona State University, she has also been an active member of the Paper Tiger TV collective and Deep Dish TV.

She brings to her work -- which has been at the forefront of exploratory media and new media narrative and of public art using community-based wireless networks -- a knowledge of technology; an interest in creating new forms of literature, cinema, and performance; and a narrative sensibility that is sometimes community-based, sometimes addresses issues of gender and sexuality, and sometimes looks at the human connection in a technology-mediated world.

Adriene Jenik's narrative of the creation of MAUVE DESERT: A CD-ROM Translation, based on Nicole Brossard's le Désert Mauve, is a classic look at the process of creating a new media narrative. And -- because she has continued to update the work, releasing a DVD documentation a few years ago -- is also an example of how writers and artists work to keep their projects current in the face of changing platforms and applications.

"The beauty of words, the power of the desert, and the fears and fantasies of human evolution with technology are all still real -- and present and prescient in the work," she observes in her statement. ....more

January 9, 2016

From the editor:
Birthday Passages
on Public Electronic Literature

W hile working on a paper on "Issues in Public Electronic Literature: From Ireland with Letters, issues of how creators in this field approach the audience have emerged -- as evidenced by the following recontextualized passages from the draft paper:

1. Ancient oral epics of sustained adventure, history, legend, and myth -- such as Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, the Ramayana, Beowulf, and The Cattle Raid of Cooley (the Táin Bó Cúailnge) -- were originally told long ago in palaces and at public gatherings. Contemporary electronic literature works potentially in this category include Uncle Roger, (in which it might be said that the fertile bull of the Táin becomes the chip that powers the personal computer revolution); Mark Amerika's Grammatron; Chindu Sreedharan's Epic Retold: Andrew Plotkin's Hoist Sail for the Heliopause and Home; Kate Pullinger and Chris Joseph/Kate Pullinger and Andy Campbell's Inanimate Alice; Joseph DeLappe's Reenactment of Mahatma Gandhi's Salt March to Dandi; and my From Ireland with Letters.

2. In the late middle ages, it is likely that monks carried manuscripts around and read from them in local communities, whose inhabitants could not read.[1] As if they were PowerPoints, these manuscripts, displayed from the laps of prelates or mounted on lecterns,[2] both attracted audiences and illustrated the moral messages that medieval manuscripts promoted -- bestiaries, for instance, with their extraordinary images of animals, whose fantastically illustrated lives promoted virtues.[3]

Indeed, when manuscript-era technologies are documented, the comparison of manuscript readings in a medieval past that was by no means less technical and contemporary public electronic literature does not seem inappropriate. For instance in the opening sections to Introduction to Manuscript Studies [4] , the documented progressions from papyrus making technologies, to paper making technologies, to the preparation of parchment -- the evolving copying technologies, the changes in instructions for the creation of initials -- are potent ancient echoes of the progression of HTML standards, the emergence of CSS, and evolving image display affordances.

Today, the sharing of the output of developing technologies by the carrying of manuscripts from community to community, is echoed in Nick Montfort's carrying his laptop from poetry space to poetry space to poetry space -- screen-projecting his generative poetry code and reading the results aloud to the assembled code-curious audience.[5]

3. And/or, if we are looking at the community aspects of serialized public literature, we might revisit Charles Olson's "Maximus of Gloucester, to You" (and similarly titled) letters and poems, which were addressed to Gloucester citizens via the editor and pages of the Gloucester Daily Times. [6]

An analogy is Jeff Nunokawa's continuing series of daily Facebook essays that (written in the early AM hours) appear every morning as public literature on his always welcoming Facebook page at https://www.facebook.com/jeff.nunokawa

4. Writing about the structure of Irish Dance music, in Traditional Music in Ireland, Irish musician Tomás O'Canainn observes that there is a tendency to concentrate on a few notes of the available scale "and return to these again and again throughout the tune". But when played by an expert player, the result is "a tune which attains unity of purpose and a build-up of tension eminently satisfying.." [7] Created in this tradition, in From Ireland with Letters, themes are stated, submerge and return, linking the cantos to each other. Additionally, weaving through the composition process is a quixotic search for the mythical lost Irish sonata called up by Grattan Flood, in A History of Irish Music: [8] A writer's quest for the lost Irish sonata is not likely to result in the discovery of ancient scores. Rather, in this case, a textual obsession has contributed to the creation (or recreation) of a series of authoring systems.

5.The role of the audience in works based on collaborative and interactive strategies in contemporary computer-media works of art and literature continues important. To conclude an interview about audience participation in her work, I asked interactive art pioneer, Sonya Rapoport: "Lastly, how did audience participation change and enrich the artistic outcome?"

"There would have been no further artistic expression if the audience participation didn't occur," she replied.[9]


1. Haug, H., "Private or Public Reading? The View of Contemporary Historians,"Paper presented at Reading the Middle Ages, UC Berkeley Program in Medieval Studies. March 25, 2011.

2. Hamburger, J.F., "Books in Books: Reflections on Reading and Writing in the Middle Ages," Houghton Library - Harvard College Library. 2010. Available at http://hcl.harvard.edu/ibraries/houghton/exhibits/books_in_books/introduction.cfm

3 Garcia, A., "United Through Time: The Oral Connection of Vernacular Texts in Arundel 292" Paper presented at Reading the Middle Ages, UC Berkeley Program in Medieval Studies. March 25, 2011.

4. Clemens, R and Graham, T., Introduction to Manuscript Studies. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007.

5. Information about Nick Montfort's work is available from http://nickm.com

6. Olson, C., The Maximus Poems. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1983.

7. Flood, G., A History of Irish Music. Dublin: Browne and Nolan, 1906, 19-20.

8. O'Canainn, T., Traditional Music in Ireland. Cork, Ireland: Ossian Publications, 1978.

9. Malloy, J., The Process of Creating New Media: Interview with Sonya Rapoport. Authoring Software, 2009. Available from http://www.well.com/user/jmalloy/elit/rapoport.html

December, 2015

Emily Short
Making of Bronze
Authoring System: Inform 7

Emily Short is a freelance consultant in Interactive Fiction, (IF) narrative design, and social interaction modeling. She has worked with Telltale Games, ArenaNet, ngmoco :), and Failbetter Games among others, and -- building interactive iPad stories around AI (Artificial Intelligence) characters -- she was the creative director of the Versu project.

She has written over two dozen works of IF and is part of the design team for Inform 7, a tool for creating parser-based IF. She also has a PhD in Classical Studies, focusing on the role of the god Hermes in Athenian drama, and she writes occasionally on classical reception in video games.

Her works include the award-winning Galatea, a reworking of the Pygmalion myth; the interactive epistolary story First Draft of the Revolution; Counterfeit Monkey, a wordplay puzzle game that addresses issues of language and democracy; and Bronze, an immersive exploration of the relationship between "beauty" and the beast.

Emily Short's work has been included in the Electronic Literature Organization Collection and exhibited at the Library of Congress, among other venues. Her practice, she observes, "explores how systems of play can support rewarding forms of highly personal and human storytelling, how conversation, actions, and social gestures can be made into meaningful game mechanics in place of the mechanics of violence, and how authoring tools can be designed around the requirements of these new forms of art." Her blog can be found at http://emshort.wordpress.com

For content | code | process, she provides a statement about the making of Bronze. Remarkable in its layered, interactive disclosure of narrative, erotic undertones, innovative memory revelation, and immersive narrative build-up. Bronze began as a short work of Interactive Fiction in the "Speed-IF" genre and involved into a memorable reader experience that is approachable for both experienced and new readers of literary IF. Although Short notes that usually she creates diagrams by hand -- in a notebook next to her keyboard, (rather than from a diagramming program) -- in this statement, application-derived flow charts allow the reader to visualize the additive, carefully-reasoned process with which she interfaced Bronze.

Accompanied by 11 diagrams, her statement, a rare glimpse of the Interactive Fiction creative process as disclosed by a master in the field, is what the editor of content | code | process dreams of reading.

The reader of Making of Bronze is advised to play the work itself not only for an understanding of how Emily Short's careful build up of detail creates narrative depth but also for an understanding of the role that her writing plays in immersing the reader in an often solitary environment, where the reader must explore half of the rooms (there are over 50) before the beast appears. The reader's understanding of both the character of the beast and of his/her projection of personal story onto the narrative are integral to the effectiveness of this work. (And perhaps the use of the pronoun "he" in the statement is an invitation to explore gender in this dense retelling of "Beauty" and The Beast)

Bronze, which was created with Inform 7, is available for download at http://inform7.com/learn/eg/bronze/index.html A map of the castle rooms and the source text are also available at this location.

The work begins with these words:

"When the seventh day comes and it is time for you to return to the castle in the forest, your sisters cling to your sleeves.

'Don't go back,' they say, and 'When will we ever see you again?' But you imagine they will find consolation somewhere.

Your father hangs back, silent and moody. He has spent the week as far from you as possible, working until late at night. Now he speaks only to ask whether the Beast treated you 'properly.' Since he obviously has his own ideas about what must have taken place over the past few years, you do not reply beyond a shrug.

You breathe more easily once you're back in the forest, alone.


Even in your short absence, the castle has come to look strange to you again. When you came here first, you stood a long while on the drawbridge, unready to cross the moat, for fear of the spells that might bind you if you did. This time it is too late to worry about such things.

An iron-barred gate leads north."

Visit Emily Short's statement on Making of Bronze to find out more

Emily Short: Revised "Puzzle Chart" for Bronze

November, 2015

Review: Jim Rosenberg, Word Space Multiplicities, Openings, Andings - Collected Essays and Papers in Digital Poetics, Hypertext, and New Media, Morgantown, WV: Center for Literary Computing, 2015.

C irculated in Italy and France, (and beyond) in the middle ages, theory composers' treatises, such as Guido d'Arrezzo's Micrologus, established a enduring framework for the composition of music. Contingently, pre-web composers of literary hypertext, such as Michael Joyce and Stuart Moulthrop, were working in parallel with the work of researchers and theorists, including Mark Bernstein, Jay Bolter, Jane Yellowlees Douglas, George Landow, and Cathy Marshall,[1] some of whom, Jim Rosenberg, for instance, were/are themselves theory composers in that they not only wrote literary hypertext but also codified hypertext theory and practice.

But in the environment of a grand, accessible, ubiquitous hypertext platform, the World Wide Web, creative hypertext writing is increasingly approached intuitively (or with routine applications) without knowledge of hypertext lineage or theory. This is not necessarily problematic given that there are differences in web-based hypertext and classic pre-web literary hypertext. Nevertheless, the publication of Jim Rosenberg's Word Space Multiplicities, Openings, Andings clearly reminds us that there is no reason to assume that our understanding and use of hypertextual systems cannot be enriched.

Furthermore, at a time when in response to fluctuating authoring system availability, writers and students are exploring the creation of personal authoring systems, the papers in Word Space Multiplicities, Openings, Andings -- published in the Computing Literature series under the editorship of Sandy Baldwin, Director of the Center for Literary Computing at West Virginia University -- open new ways of considering both the composition of and the writer/reader experience of hypertext literature.

The opening sections of Word Space Multiplicities -- including Sandy Baldwin's "An Interview on Poetics", "A Conversation with Jim Rosenberg on the Interactive Art Conference on Arts Wire" and Rosenberg's Leonardo-published "Words on Works" riff: "The Word the Play Attaching at a Wide Interval" -- introduce his background, vision and composing process and set the stage for his formal papers. However, rather than review the opening "Essays and Interviews", in light of the mission of content | code | process, this review concentrates on the "Formal Papers" that comprise the second part of this slim but potent compendium.

As we approach the composition of contemporary works that reside on the World Wide Web, the pedestrian use of links becomes a meaning-laden process in the light of Word Space Multiplicities. For instance, in his chapter "Locus Looks at the Turing Play: Hypertextuality vs. Full Programmability", Rosenberg explores algorithmic behavior in hypertext nodes and links including user/algorithm relationships and behavioral versus structural points of view. Along the way, he explores creative practice, such as the use of guard fields to control access to linked contents, and addresses creative writer-specific utilization of algorithmic behavior:

"Classical hypertext algorithms have a clear identity: the user knows what is supposed to happen; indeed it would be taken as a sign of bad design if the user were not to know what is supposed to happen. But in the literary world, incomplete knowledge on the part of the reader has been an age-old artistic variable -- the novel derives much of its power precisely from the fact that the reader doesn't know what is going to happen. In generalized cybertexts it may be artistically important for the author not to spell out the identity of the algorithm. The author may or may not want the algorithm itself (e.g. source code) to be accessible; the author may or may not want the reader to know whether a particular phenomenon occurred as the result of an algorithm."[2]

Jim Rosenberg, screen shot from Diagrams Series 6

Interactive poetry pioneer Jim Rosenberg has been working with non-linear poetic forms since 1966. His visually elegant, word-dense, compressed writer/reader-revealed spatial hypertexts -- including Intergrams and The Barrier Frames and Diffractions Through -- were published by Eastgate in the 1990's.

In his words:

"Somewhere along about '86 or so, playing with bit-mapped graphics and a mouse, I realized that software provided me a way of doing something I had wanted to do very much from the very start: word clusters -- putting words literally on top of one another. When words are put on top of one another visually, or aurally, the result often is that they interfere with one another to the point of unintelligibility. With interactive software, the words can be put atop one another and then by using the mouse, the reader can reveal individual layers one at a time, so all the words are intelligible..." [3]

To completely experience his interactive work, it is important to run it, and much of his work is now available on his website at http://www.inframergence.org/jr/index.shtml

The formal papers that form the body of Word Space Multiplicities, such as "Hypertext in the Open Air" and "Locus Looks at the Turing Play", are core reading for writers of electronic literature. Even for those of us who have been working in the field for years and have read all these papers separately many times, the detail-intensive original thinking in Jim Rosenberg's papers is an extraordinary starting/restarting point for writing and programming with contemporary hypertext systems. For example focusing on the implementation of his Frame Stack Project [4] as actual working code, in "Hypertext in the Open Air: A Systemless Approach to Spatial Hypertext", Rosenberg deftly combines an exploration of his own authoring process with issues such as run-time behavior in conjunction with authoring, and relatedly, interactive authoring and the affordances of spatial (visually structured) hypertext.

In his primary paper, "The Structure of Hypertext Activity", Rosenberg establishes a vocabulary of acteme/episode/session, and in the process brilliantly clarifies the hypertext experience for both writer and reader. Complete review....

November Featured Statement:
Caitlin Fisher
Andromeda: augmented reality poem
Authoring System: SnapDragonAR

C aitlin Fisher holds a Canada Research Chair in Digital Culture in the Department of Film at York University, Toronto. A co-founder of York's Future Cinema Lab, her research investigates the future of narrative through explorations of interactive storytelling and interactive cinema in Augmented Reality environments.

Her work is poetic, exploratory, interesting, and innovative, currently combining the development of authoring software with evocative literary constructs. She completed one of Canada's first born-digital hypertextual dissertations in 2000, and her hypermedia novella, These Waves of Girls, won the International Electronic Literature Award for Fiction in 2001. Most recently, her augmented reality poem, Andromeda, was co-awarded the 2008 International Cuidad de Vinaròs Prize for Electronic Literature in the digital poetry category.

Caitlin Fischer is the writer/director for Chez Moi, a part of Queerstory, a locative app tour of the political, cultural and social history of Toronto's queer community.

Other projects include:

Wallace Edwards Illustrations - Immersive Worlds. Investiagtions into immersive, creative storyworlds.


Breaking the Chains. AR Experience in partnership with the Harriet Tubman Institute at York University, Toronto, ON, 2012.

In her statement, Caitlin Fisher talks about the development of the Snapdragon authoring environment in her AR Lab at York University, the creation of Andromeda with Snapdragon, and the creation of the subsequent performative version, Andromeda2.

Visit Caitlin Fisher's statement to find out more.

September-October, 2015

October Featured Statement:
Bill Bly
We Descend Vol. 1
(Eastgate, 1997)
Software: Storyspace
We Descend Vol. 2
Software: Tinderbox

B ill Bly is the author of the ongoing hypertext We Descend. Volume 1 of We Descend was published by Eastgate in 1997. Volume 2 was exhibited at the Convention of the Modern Language Association in January 2013 and 2014. His works also include Wyrmes Mete, a hypertext chapbook of poems, and, with John McDaid, he was awarded the John Culkin Award for Outstanding Praxis in the Field of Media Ecology for their music CD, Media Ecology Unplugged.

As a teacher, a founding member of the Hypertext Writers Workshop, and the recorder for the legendary Cybermountain Colloquium, Bill Bly has also been active in working with colleagues and students in the creation of electronic literature. He taught dramatic literature and theatre history at New York University (NYU) for 20 years, until he became interested in hypertext, which he taught both at NYU and at Fordham University. He also ran the writing program at Wagner College in Staten Island. Currently, he teaches Speech Communication at Northampton Community College in Pennsylvania.

In a content | code | process statement about his densely layered work, We Descend, he sets forth the struggles and pleasures of creating hypertext. Beginning with reading Robert Coover's seminal article in New York Times Book Review, he describes how he ordered every title published by Eastgate; his Eureka moment with Stuart Moulthrop's Victory Garden while participating in Robert Kendall's online Hypertext Poetry & Fiction class at the New School; the creation of We Descend in Storyspace; and the creation of We Descend Volume 2 in Tinderbox.

"What started out in the early 1990s as a simple node-link hypertext has somehow turned into my life's work," Bly observes.

Visit Bill Bly's statement on We Descend to find out more.

Review: D. Fox Harrell, Phantasmal Media, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013

"Expressive computing system developers can create digital stories, poems, or games in which aspects of content, such as theme, plot, emotional tone, metaphorical expression, or imagery, can vary improvisationally with user interaction...In addition to the new meanings generated in each new single session, new meanings emerge from the contrast between multiple readings or play sessions. These new meanings can be composed in response (discrete or continuous) to user interaction."" [1]

The creation of electronic literature, literary games, and content-intense interactive art involves a complex combining of content and code/authoring system, as well as a consideration of user interface and the ability to put it all together -- whether the writer's vision is to emphasize the constraints or to create a work where the constraints are not apparent to the reader. Print poets have thousands of years of lineage of the constraints of writing poetry and thus an inherent heightened ability to compose, whether intuitively or with deliberatively imposed constraints.

In contrast, although there is energy in this seemingly never-ending struggle, creators of new media must constantly rise above evolving technologies and look to the meaning of the work as a whole. To this end, for those who work on the fertile borders of content and code, Fox Harrell's Phantasmal Media is required reading.

In this fascinating book of shifting definitions, that in their very mutability illustrate an elusive concept, Harrell initially explores "phantasm", not only in new media but also in print, film, and music, pointing for instance to Akira Kurosawa's Rashomon, where "Meaning is constructed as a blend of the concrete knowledge that the event did take place and the shifting, conflicting reports given by the characters amid a cinematic forest scene dappled by shadow and light." [2]

Contingently, he illustrates the use of phantasm in new media with Chameleonia: Shadow Play, created in Harrell's Imagination, Computation, and Expression Laboratory (ICE Lab) at MIT. Inspired by W.E.B. Du Bois's definition of "double consciousness", Chameleonia responds to gestures and environment and in the process transforms a user's avatar, while at the same time the avatar's shadow mutates differently -- confronting the user with a virtual environment where an individual's self-conception is different from the way that individual is viewed by society.

As the book progresses through sections on "Subjective Computing", "Cultural Computing", and "Critical Computing", like the variety of works that are used to illustrate these concepts, the definition of "phantasm" is variable and elusive. But, to a certain extent, that is a point of Phantasmal Media, at least for this reader.

Complete review....

Featured Review from the Archives: Judith Donath, The Social Machine, Designs for Living Online, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2014

J udith Donath's The Social Machine sets forth a clear, elegant, and continually interesting approach to the design, interface, and pleasurable interaction of/with online social environments. With a focus on innovative interface and design, The Social Machine is also of interest to writers and artists, who are interested in issues of design and metaphor in the creation of interfaces for electronic literature and new media art.

In her words:

"The online world may evolve into an extraordinary new form of human society, where people make discoveries collectively, produce important works, and form friendships and other connections at a vastly unprecedented scale. But it is not there yet. Humans are fundamentally sensory and social beings: for the online world to achieve its promise, we need to design interfaces that work with how we see and respond to the world around us."

Judith Donath is a Harvard Berkman Faculty Fellow and former director of the MIT Media Lab's Sociable Media Group. She is also an artist, whose work exploring aspects of social media has been shown internationally. In her Preface to The Social Machine, she credits the MIT Architecture Machine Group, ("ArcMac", the precursor of the Media Lab, where she began her graduate studies) for the genesis of the remarkable approaches to the social media environment that she sets forth in this book. At ArcMac, Donath was "immersed in a culture devoted to inventing technologies to transform how people think, learn and communicate." And many of the ideas in this book, she observes, spring from the ArcMac culture "...that emphasized the sensory experience of the computer interface, that it should not be a cramped read-out, but a fully inhabitable environment"

The Social Machine utilizes Donath's work -- including work created in collaboration with students and colleagues -- to explore creative approaches to contemporary social media. For instance, Visual Who (1995) was inspired by a trip to Japan, where (when feeling isolated) she would run @who to see who was online at the lab back home.

To make @who more interesting, Donath eventually used data from the Lab mailing lists to construct an interactive, beautifully designed graphic interface that overlaps interests and identities and in the process creates a feeling of co-presence and community identity. Visual Who is thus an artist's interface for a community of friends and colleagues, and in this context elegantly mediates the experience: "In the middle of the day, the 'window' shimmered with people coming and going; late at night it was dark, with only the occasional user checking in."

Other works documented in The Social Machine expand the idea of social media and/or ask us to consider social media issues. For instance, in 2000, Donath, Karrie Karahalios, and Fernanda Viégas created the Visiphone, which -- with both abstract and meaningful components -- interfaced conversations among friends who wanted to communicate virtually while cooking and cleaning in the kitchen.

For instance, Christine Liu and Donath's UrbanHermes, (2006) which allowed users in public places to display words or images on Sharp Zaurus PDAs woven into unisex messenger bags -- and encouraged other users with similar gear to respond to or retransmit the images -- blurred the boundaries between the real and the virtual. In the process, UrbanHermes functioned as a performance art work and as a way of looking at the experience of social media in a different context, while at the same time, it asked questions about the dichotomy of expanded community and privacy.

Complete review....

Featured Statement:
Andrew Plotkin
The Dreamhold
Software: Inform;
web version is powered by Parchment, a JavaScript Z-code interpreter

W riter/programmer Andrew Plotkin is the author of a series of award-winning works of Interactive Fiction,(IF) including Shade, Spider and Web, and Hoist Sail for the Heliopause and Home. An integral member of the IF community, he also helps support the software tools that underlie contemporary IF.

Plotkin has worked on game design and game tools his entire life, though mostly outside of the game industry and academic worlds. With his recently released Hadean Lands, a complex Interactive Fiction that was four years in the making, he continues to pursue in his words "a (perhaps chimerical) career as a creator of narrative interaction on mobile platforms."

For content | code | process, he writes about The Dreamhold. A tutorial that is also a work of Interactive Fiction, The Dreamhold offers an excellent introduction to the experience of classic Interactive Fiction

In his words:

"I've tried to create a game which rewards many species of adventurer: the inexperienced newcomer, the puzzle-hurdler, the casual tourist, the meticulous explorer, the wild experimenter, the seeker after nuances and implications."

Winner, of the Best Use of Medium 2004 XYZZY Award, The Dreamhold presents the reader, as do most IFs, with prompts that require input in the form of traditional IF commands. The process -- mediated by software (the parser) that understands and responds to certain natural language instructions -- is continually interactive; the reader navigates the story by entering text phrases at the prompts; the story responds:

Andrew Plotkin: - The Dreamhold

T he Dreamhold was my attempt to address the traditional accessibility problems of parser-based interactive fiction. Its goals were (1) to act as a tutorial for the IF parser; (2) to provide an old-fashioned adventure experience of exploration and puzzle-solving in a broad world; (3) to be narratively interesting. ...In that order.

The first goal conditioned much of the game design. In order to provide a simple starting environment, I had the player begin in an empty white cell with only one object available. The player is cued to read a description of common IF commands, and then try the most common ones -- "LOOK", "EXAMINE", "GO". Once the player manages to leave the cell, they are rewarded with a change from a spare environment to a lavish one; this provides an opportunity to exercise curiosity and delve into details. The player quickly runs into some locked doors, which are the first formal puzzle of the game. (Although newcomers might consider the parser to be the first puzzle of any IF game...) Passing a locked door gives access to the bulk of the map, with a range of challenges.

I wanted to introduce the player to IF conventions, even those that were (even at the time) considered old-fashioned or unnecessarily troublesome. Thus The Dreamhold has darkness, a "SCORE" command, a set of colored tokens to collect, bendy passages, a maze, (of sorts) and the possibility of death. On the other hand, in-game hints are available, and the game cannot be made unwinnable. (allowing for the option of "UNDO" after death). The possibility of irreversible mistakes is demonstrated with a single object -- the apple -- which does not affect any of the game's puzzles or endings.

Visit Andrew Plotkin's content | code | process Statement on The Dreamhold to find out more.

August, 2015

Featured Statement:
J.R. Carpenter: The Broadside of a Yarn
Software: QR code, JavaScript, jQuery, CSS, HTML, Photoshop, Gimp

J. R. Carpenter is a Canadian artist, performer, poet, novelist, new media writer and researcher, based in South Devon, England. She began using the Internet as a medium for the creation and dissemination of non-linear narratives in 1993. Since that time, her work has been presented in journals, festivals, and museums around the world, including the Electronic Literature Collection, the Museum of Contemporary Canadian Art; Montréal Museum of Fine Arts; Istanbul Contemporary Art Museum; The Art Gallery, Tasmania; The University of Maryland; Jyväskylä Art Museum, Finland; Palazzo delle arti Napoli in Naples, Kipp Gallery, Indiana University of Pennsylvania; E-Poetry, Barcelona, Spain; the Arnolfini Gallery, Bristol, England; and The Banff Centre, Canada.
J. R. Carpenter is currently a member of faculty for In(ter)ventions: Literary Practice at the Edge, a ground-breaking new residency program at The Banff Centre, in Canada, and she is a practice-led PhD Researcher, working in the emerging and converging fields of performance writing, digital literature, locative narrative, media archaeology and networked art practices at University College Falmouth, in England.

C ommissioned by ELMCIP for the 2012 Remediating the Social exhibition in Edinburgh, The Broadside of a Yarn is a richly detailed 21st century locative broadside, in which a series of computer-generated narrative dialogues are accessed via QR codes.

One generator "is composed entirely of dialogue from Joseph Conrad's The Secret Sharer. Another contains lines of dialogue from Shakespeare's The Tempest," she explains in her Authoring Software statement. "Details from many a high sea story have been netted by this net-worked work. The combinatorial powers of computer-generated narrative conflate and confabulate characters, facts, and forms of narrative accounts of fantastical islands, impossible pilots, and voyages into the unknown undertaken over the past 2340 years."

Existing not only as a series of gallery mounted "map squares" of images found and/or created, in Edinburgh but also as a live many-voiced performance, The Broadside of a Yarn was/is in her words "a pervasive performative wander through a sea of sailors' yarns".

Visit J. R. Carpenter's statement on The Broadside of a Yarn to find out more.

The End(s) of Electronic Literature:
The 2015 Electronic Literature Organization Conference,
Bergen, Norway, August 4-7, 2015

ELO2015 Hybridity Performances and Screenings: Simon Biggs, Garth Paine, and Sue Hawksley. Software development by Hadi Mehrpouya. Crosstalk, Bundanon Trust, New South Wales, Australia, 2013; Arizona State University, 2014; Bergen Norway, 2015. Crosstalk uses real-time multi-modal sensing and interaction systems to create a mediated social space inhabited by two dancers, whose descriptions of each other are transformed into text objects that both respond to the actions of the dancers and combine, recombine, and interact with other texts.

H osted by the Electronic Literature Research Group at the University of Bergen and addressing issues of the future of electronic literature, The End(s) of Electronic Literature, the 2015 Electronic Literature Organization Conference (ELO2015) will convene in Bergen, Norway from August 4-7.

Among the series of workshops that lead into the conference is Philippe Bootz and Johnathan Baillehace's two-part workshop, which -- in this year that the ELO conference is held in Europe -- will focus on the history and documentation of French Digital Poetry.

On Wednesday, August 5, Conference Chair Scott Rettberg will officially open the conference. Introduced/moderated by Rettberg and Program Chair Jill Walker Rettberg, the opening Keynote, "End over End", will take the form of a debate between Espen Aarseth, principal researcher at the Center for Computer Games Research, IT University of Copenhagen, and Stuart Moulthrop, pioneer electronic literature writer and Professor of English at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

From an "Archiving Roundtable" to "Feminist Readings / Data Visualisation Poetics", sessions will expand on the conference theme of the "end(s) of electronic literature. "...the field of electronic literature has reached a state of maturity at which it is reasonable to think about our end(s) in a broad and connective sense", Scott Rettberg explains. "It is a useful point to consider our aesthetic purposes, our relations to other disciplines, our relations to social and political reality, our situation within a global networked culture, and what impact our research and practice will have on future generations."

Beginning with Stephanie Strickland's "Six Questions for Born-Digital Archivists", the Archiving Roundtable will also include Marjorie C. Luesebrink, Rui Torres, Leonardo Flores, and the ELC3 Collective -- Flores, Stephanie Boluk, Jacob Garbe, and Anastasia Salter -- in a discussion of issues in archiving electronic literature.

Feminist Readings / Data Visualisation Poetics will focus on memory and female voices with Maria Angel and Anna Gibbs presenting on "Digitising Ariadne's Thread: Feminism, Excryption, and the Unfolding of Memory in Digital spaces" and Maria Goicoechea and Laura Sanchez presenting on "Female voices in Hispanic Digital Literature"

"This is the most international conference we have ever had", Scott Rettberg emphasizes. "There are going to be five focused exhibitions, and a vast array of approaches to the subject in both a scholarly and artistic sense. We encouraged people to push at the edges and they have really responded."

It's hard to choose a highlight, he continues, "It is going to have many. And I hope it will push us all to think beyond the novelty of the device or technique and back into thinking about how these techniques can be usefully applied to vital and challenging subjects." For instance, in his words:

"...having people like Samantha Gorman, who is developing narrative projects that merge hypertext, touch interfaces, and cinematic vernacular, people like José Aburto from Peru, a terrific visually inventive digital poet whom probably many in the field have not yet heard of, a show which examines e-literature in Russia, Poland and Portugal, another focused on digital literature for children, and one which is focused on electronic literature in political contexts. We have works ranging from Sharon Daniel's Inside the Distance, an interactive documentary about mediation between victims and assailants, to Jason Nelson's poetry robot."

"The University of Bergen's Digital Culture Program has been at the forefront of facilitating and promoting electronic literature through projects like Electronic Literature as a Model of Creativity and Innovation in Practice (ELMCIP) and the Anthology of European Electronic Literature," ELO President Dene Grigar observes. "Faculty member Scott Rettberg is one of the founders of the Electronic Literature Organization and continues to serve on its Board; members of the faculty -- Jill Walker Rettberg and Patricia Tomaszek -- are noted scholars of/in the field. The Fulbright Scholarship offered by the program has built the careers of many researchers and artists and has raised the prestige of electronic literature in Europe, the U.S. and beyond. What better reasons can there be for hosting the ELO 2015 in Bergen, besides the fact that it is among the most beautiful cities in the world?"

Under the aegis of Artistic Chair: Roderick Coover, Five exhibitions of electronic literature will be open to the public, beginning on August4. Both Sharon Daniel's and Jason Nelson's work will be in the Interventions exhibition, which in the Conference's words "will feature works that engage with contemporary cultural discourse and political reality, challenging audiences to consider digital artifacts and practices that reflect and intervene in matters of the environment, social justice, and our relation to the habitus." Interventions also includes Donna Leishman's Front, a "fictitious cautionary tale, set within the world of social media", as well as works by David Clark, Andreas Zingerle and Linda Kronman, Chris Rodley and Andrew Burrell, and Damon Baker.

The End(s)of Electronic Literature Festival Exhibition

T he UiB Humanities Library will host the central Festival Exhibition, as well as a small historical exhibition showing the emergence of electronic literature and kiosk computers showing the forthcoming ELC3 collection. The exhibition will be open to the general public from August 4 until August 28 -- with the following works:

Megan Heyward and Michael Finucan:
The Secret Language of Desire
Ian Hatcher and Stephanie Strickland:
House of Trust
Will Luers:
Phantom Agents
Eugene Garber and Lynn Hassan:
Eroica: a hypermedia fiction
Jason Nelson:
A Nervous System
Samantha Gorman and Danny Cannizzaro:
Maria Mencía:
Gateway to the World
Abraham Avnisan:
Stuart Moulthrop:
If You Please
Alinta Krauth:
if-notNow, if-then-when-else
Aaron Tucker:
The Chessbard Plays
Deanne Achong:
Lusca Mourns The Telegraph | In Search of Lost Messages
Johannes Heldén and Håkan Jonson:
Kathi Inman Berens, Eva Pfitzenmaier, Kerstin Juhlin and Alicia Cohen:
Dark Restoration: Kalfarlien 18

Festival Exhibition Images: Maria Mencía's Gateway to the World is "an exploration of data visualisation poetics by using open data from the maritime database to visualise the routes of the vessels arriving to and from the Port of Hamburg. As the vessels move they act as writing tools to reveal a string of text creating calligramatic forms of information pulled from Wikipedia entries about the name of the vessels."

Festival Exhibition Images: Kathi Inman Berens, Eva Pfitzenmaier, Kerstin Juhlin and Alicia Cohen: Dark Restoration: Kalfarlien 18

"...RestOration: Kalfarlien 18 is an e-lit ecopoem. Whether it's the faint singing of a woman in the shower, or the functional e-waste, or the satisfying click of an actual Kalfarlien 18 doorknob unlocking pieces of the tablet game -- RestOration juxtaposes the care economy of a home with the dizzying pace and alarming toxicity of technologic obsolescence."

Paper Sessions and Roundtables

S peakers (not listed elsewhere in this section) in a wide variety of panels and artists' talks, including Research and Practice in Electronic Poetry in Ireland, Narrative Theory, and Interventions: Resistance and Protest are -- among many others -- Sandy Baldwin, Katarzyna Bazar, Ranjit Bhatnagar, Sandra Bettencourt, Serge Bouchardon, Mez Breeze, John Cayley, Jeremy Douglass, Markku Eskelinen, Xiana Sotelo Garcia, Aud Gjersdal, Jhave, Laura Sánchez Gómez, Nicola Harwood, Davin Heckman, Jon Hoem, Zuzana Husarova, Bimbola Idowu-Faith, Anne Karhio, Linda Kronman, Jason Edward Lewis, Michael J. Maguire, Piotr Marecki, Judy Malloy, Mark Marino, Lello Masucci, Talan Memmott, María José Sánchez Montes, Nick Montfort, Jeneen Naji, Kwabena Opoku-Agyemang, Mariusz Pisarski, Agnieszka Przybyszewska, Kate Pullinger, Eric Dean Rasmussen, Mark Sample, Patricia Tomaszek, Eman Younis, Christine Wilks, Rob Wittig, and Mia Zamora.

A complete list of speakers is on the Schedule at http://elo2015.sched.org/directory/speakers

And a brief sampling of Paper Sessions and Roundtables appears below.

G ames

Veli-Matti Karhulahti: Rhematics and the Literariness of Electronic Literature
Anastasia Salter: Ephemeral Words, Ephemeral People: Suicide and Choice in Twine Games
Fox Harrell: Dominic Kao and Chong-U Lim: Toward Understanding Real-World Social Impacts of Avatars
Clara Fernandez-Vara: Digital Games: the New Frontier of Postmodern Detective Fiction

H ybrid Books: Augmented Artist's Books, Touch Literature and Interactivity

Lucile Haute, Alexandra Saemmer, Aurelie Herbet, Emeline Brulé and Nolwen Trehondart: Digital artists books and augmented fictions: a new field in digital literature?
Søren Bro Pold, Christian Ulrik Andersen and Jonas Fritsch: Literary Interaction In The Age Of The Post-Digital
Kathleen Berens: Touch and Decay: Tomasula's _TOC_ on iOS

I ntermediality and Electronic Literature

"This roundtable discussion, led by both established and emerging e-lit scholars and artists, will explore the idea of electronic literature as an intermedial practice, looking at the topic from a wide range of forms including literature, performance, sound, computation, visual art, and physical computing. Drawing upon artistic work they have produced or studied, each panelist will provide a five-minute statement that touches on qualities related to intermediality like hybridity, syncretism, and collaboration. Following this series of brief presentations, the panelists, then, encourage engagement in a wider conversation with the audience."

John Barber, Faculty, CMDC | Washington State University Vancouver
Caitlin Fisher, Director, Augmented Reality Lab, York University
Samantha Gorman Student/, USC
Dene Grigar, Director and Professor, WSUV
James O'Sullivan, Digital Humanities Research Designer, Penn State University


Performances, Readings, and Screenings

A series of performances, readings, performative readings, and screenings will punctuate the conference. They include: Judd Morrissey's Augmented Reality poem Kjell Theøry, John Cayley: To be with you, Donna Leishman and Steve Gibson: Borderline, Judy Malloy's generative reading from The Not Yet Named Jig and Chris Funkhouser and Louis Wells presenting Funkhouser and Sonny Rae Tempest's code opera Shy Nag.

Performances and Readings: Dene Grigar and Greg Philbrook, Curlew; (Shown in image: Dene Grigar and Gianluigi Maria Masucci, OLE .01 International Festival of Electronic Literature, Naples, 2014)

Curlew is "a spoken word performance augmented with video, music, and sound triggered by gestures made by the artist". The narrative centers on an isolated fisherman on an island off the Gulf Coast and his actions to save the island's shoreland in the face of a destructive storm.

Performances and Readings: Judy Malloy: The Not Yet Named Jig
The Not Yet Named Jig utilizes generative hyperfiction to build a world model of a real but sparsely documented time and place. The time is the morning of April 24, 1660. The place is "Mystick Side" in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, in the area incorporated as Malden in 1649. As the reading proceeds, video and audio lexias appear, disappear, and return again at random. Only 28 lexias are included in this small sample from the work; the result is a song of repeated lexias.

Performances and Readings: Libretto: Chris Funkhouser and Sonny Rae Tempest; Director: Louis Wells: Shy nag, A Digital Opera

While co-teaching an online course at UnderAcademy College, Chris Funkhouser and Sonny Rae Tempest co-authored Shy nag by "applying a series of intensive digital processes to a piece of hexadecimal code (derived from a .jpg image)."

"...In Shy nag, Microsoft Word and numerous other programs and processing techniques have a non-trivial presence in the composition. Software serves as a type of interlocutor that sustains the writers' experimental objective -- a time-consuming process blends creative and uncreative. The exercise also contains destructive qualities as the code migrates to language, image, and sound -- although the authors prefer foregrounding its multi-level transformative properties."

Shy nag premiere, Rutgers-Newark, February 2015. Photo: Rodney Reyes

In Bergen, Shy nag will be presented as a staged reading, directed by Louis Wells, Faculty, Theatre Arts and Technology, the New Jersey Institute of Technology.(NJIT) The cast will consist of Maria Aladren, Sandy Baldwin, Kathi Inman Berens, Natalia Fedorova, Aleatory Funkhouser, Chris Funkhouser, Fluorish Klink, Jeneen Naji, Álvaro Seiça, and Louis Wells.

The Electronic Literature Research Group at the University of Bergen

ELO2015 is hosted by the Electronic Literature Research Group at the University of Bergen in Norway. In answer to the question -- What is the significance for ELO2015 of this meeting place? -- Conference Chair Scott Rettberg responded:

S cott Rettberg: "Many in our field know that from the University of Bergen we led the HERA-funded ELMCIP project and developed the ELMCIP Electronic Literature Knowledge Base, but the history of electronic literature in Bergen stretches back far further than that. One of the foundational research monographs in the field, Espen Aarseth's Cybertext: Perspectives in Ergodic Literature, was written here in 1995 as Aarseth's Ph.D. dissertation, and during the late 1990s and early 2000s, the series of Digital Arts and Culture conferences including the 1998 and 2000 iterations were essential to launching international research communities in electronic literature, games studies, and digital culture. After he left for Denmark, Jill Walker Rettberg succeeded Aarseth as a leading electronic literature and digital textuality researcher, both in her research and through initiatives such as ELINOR (Electronic Literature in the Nordic Coun-tries), and many of us have followed since. Electronic literature has been a part of the curriculum of our program in digital culture continuously since the 1990s, and our students continue to both research and to create works of electronic literature. In the past decade, we have hosted a number of international research seminars on specific aspects of electronic literature and digital art, and we have worked with the Bergen Public Library and other local cultural institutions to organize public readings, performances, and exhibitions dedicated to the subject -- making ours a lively scene that extends beyond the confines of the university on the hill into the cultural life of the city."

Authoring Software: You have both been involved with electronic literature for many years, can you summarize your work in this field and its relevance to ELO2015?

Scott Rettberg: We are both deeply committed to this field. Jill and I have both been involved since the late 1990s. As a graduate student, I proposed the ELO and served as its first executive director and have been involved in the organization ever since. I write and research electronic literature. Jill started out in electronic literature and has revisited the topic even as she has moved more expansively into many areas of digital textuality.

Authoring Software: As we look to the future of electronic literature, do you have any further thoughts about the place of electronic literature in contemporary creative endeavor?

Scott Rettberg: I have always been pretty comfortable with conceiving of electronic literature as an avant-garde experimental literature practice. I've never really expected it to become a mass-culture phenomena. The Dada weren't. The Surrealists weren't. Postmodern American literature wasn't. Poetry really isn't. And I think that's fine. But now we have this strange moment, when the practices of electronic literature may actually be pairing well with practices in mainstream culture. More than ever before in my experience. So that is a time to take stock and really consider and reflect. What happens to electronic literature after it is avant-garde? That's what this conference is about.

Hybridity, Decentering, and Kid E-lit

In addition to the Festival Exhibition and the Interventions exhibition, three other exhibitions will be staged at EL02015. They are Hybridity, Kids E-Lit, and Decentering.

Hybridity features works "that push at the edges of literature and other forms, and that appeal to other aspects of the sensorium than those we typically associate with reading", such as John Murray and Anastasia Salter's From Beyond Hybridity - Ouija Board Project, Mez Breeze and Andy Campbell's #Carnivast; and works by Philippe Bootz and Nicolas Bauffe; Angus Forbes; Joellyn Rock and Alison Aune; Caitlin Fisher and Tony Vieira; Julie Vulcan and Ashley Scott; and Claire Donato, Álvaro Seiça, and Luc Dall'Armellina.

Decentering highlights innovations in digital textuality in Eastern Europe and in the Southern hemisphere -- with work and research by Nicola Harwood, Fred Wah, Jin Zhang, Bessie Wapp, Simon Lysander Overstall, Tomoyo Ihaya, Phillip Djwa, Thomas Loh, Hiromoto Ida and Patrice Leung; José Aburto; Francisco Marinho and Alckmar Santos; Jakub Jagiello and Laura Lech; Natalia Fedorova; and Álvaro Seiça, and Piotr Marecki.

Organized in collaboration with Bergen Public Library and funded by Nordic Cultural Point, the Kid E-Lit exhibition showcases experimental electronic literature for children and teenagers in conjunction with Nordic children's and young adult's book apps for tablets. Works of electronic literature for children include Mark Marino and The Marino Family: Mrs. Wobbles and The Tangerine House; and Aleatory Funkhouser's My Own Alphabet, plus works by Emilie Barbier; Ana Abril Hernández; Leja Hocevar; Luis Javier Pisonero and Mario Azna; Pierre Fourny, Guillaume Jacquemin, Serge Bouchardon, Luc Dall'Armellina and Hélène Caubel; Jorge Andrés Gómez, Baptiste Ingrand, Florine Morestin; and LeAnn Erickson's They were asked to serve, and math was their secret weapon. The Computer Wore Heels iPad app.

And -- from Åshild Kanstad Johnsen's Kubbe lager skyggeteater to Timo Parvela & Jussi Kaakinen's Taro at the Center of the Earth -- works from the Nordic countries illustrate how iPads and other tablet platforms are housing multimodal and interactive stories for children and teenagers.

Awards and a Banquet

ELO President Dene Grigar reports that:

"This is the second year for the ELO to give out The Robert Coover Award for a Work of Electronic Literature and The N. Katherine Hayles Award for Criticism of Electronic Literature. The Coover Award drew 17 submissions from the U.S., the UK, Taiwan, Canada, Ireland, Australia, and Korea. The Jury consisted of Brian Kim Stefans. Jason Edward Lewis, and Jim Andrews. The Hayles Award drew 11 submissions from the U.S., the UK, Italy, and Portugal. The Jury consisted of Maria Mencia, Manuel Portela, and Will Luers. Rob Wittig directed both Juries. Each 1st place award comes with a $1000 cash prize, membership for one year at the Associate Level to the ELO, and a plaque commemorating the award; 2nd place comes with membership for one year at the Associate Level to the ELO and a plaque commemorating the award. A total of five works were short-listed."

O n Friday evening, August 7,
Dene Grigar
will host the final banquet.
There will be food, drink,
an announcement of the
2015 Electronic Literature Awards,
an announcement of the
2016 Conference location and theme,
final speeches,
and dancing!

Complete information about ELO2015 is available in the resources listed below.

EL02015: Electronic Literature Conference

ELO2015: Schedule

Electronic Literature Organization

July, 2015

Megan Heyward
The Secret Language of Desire
Software: Adobe InDesign; Adobe DPS (Digital Publishing Suite; Edge Animate; Photoshop, Illustrator, ProTools, and HTML5.

Megan Heyward is an Australian digital media writer, artist and educator, whose media practice operates at the intersection of storytelling and new technologies. She works across multiple media and formats, using video, audio, text and image elements to shape innovative projects for electronic hypertext, interactive media, mobile, locative media, augmented reality, eliterature and other emerging digital media forms.

Her interactive narrative work of day, of night (2002) published by Eastgate Systems, has been widely exhibited, including Australia, Europe, Japan, Canada and the US. Her locative narrative and AR app Notes for Walking (2013) was exhibited in the Sydney Festival 2013, attracting audiences of over 5,000 people to Middle Head National Park, Sydney to explore the site mediated by their mobile phones. Her latest work, The Secret Language of Desire, was supported by the Australia Council for the Arts.

For Authoring Software, she describes the creation of The Secret Language of Desire, an interactive narrative app for iPads, which ultimately grew to include not only text but also images, animation, and sound.

"As a text-foregrounded work, The Secret Language of Desire draws deliberately on the history and interface of the codex whilst experimenting with its disruption via haptic interactions which interrupt, surprise and, ideally, extend and transform the reading experience," she observes.

Megan Heyward teaches media arts at the University of Technology, Sydney. Her statement not only describes the process and software that she used to create The Secret Language of Desire but also suggests reasons to create work for the iPad.

Megan Heyward: The Joy of Text: Writing and Developing The Secret Language of Desire

The Secret Language of Desire is an interactive narrative app designed specifically to take advantage of the haptic and multimodal capacities of iPads. An interactive erotica app / digital pillow book, it that traces a woman's journey from everyday life into a landscape of sensuality and desire. The Secret Language of Desire merges 27 ultra-short chapters with interactive elements; in an environment where objects can be touched, triggering animations and sound, and images can be rubbed off, revealing hidden contents. The Secret Language of Desire will be exhibited at ELO2015: The End(s) of Electronic Literature, August 4-8 in Bergen Norway and is also available for iPads directly from the AppStore. This article discusses the genesis and development of the project.

...more about The Secret Language of Desire

June, 2015

Deena Larsen
Marble Springs 3.0
Software: Wikidot

Colorado native Deena Larsen has been a central voice in the writing and understanding of new media literature.

Her seminal hypertext, Marble Springs, about the lives of women in a Colorado mining town, was published by Eastgate Systems in 1993. Her work has also been published by the Iowa Review Web; Drunken Boat; Cauldron and Net; Riding the Meridian; Poems that Go; The Blue Moon Review; New River. and The Electronic Literature Collection. Her current work is the Rose Project which in her words "ascribes meaning to letters, adding nuances to language."

For many years, Deena Larsen hosted forums and workshops for the eliterature community. She currently hosts the website Fundamentals : Rhetorical Devices for Electronic Literature, and her archives, The Deena Larsen Collection, are housed at the Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities at the University of Maryland.

Authoring Software encourages writers to document different approaches to choices and to the utilization of authoring systems and platforms. In her statement about Marble Springs 3.0, Deena Larsen presents a glimpse into the process she utilized to migrate the narrative framework for the hyperfictional Gold rush town, Marble Springs -- from HyperCard to the 2011- Wikidot version, Marble Springs 3.0. ......more about Marble Springs 3.0

May, 2015

May 2015: Featured Work:
Judd Morrissey
The Last Performance [dot org]
Software: HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP, MySQL, Drupal

Writer and code artist Judd Morrissey is an Assistant Professor at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago in Writing, Art and Technology Studies, and Performance, where he creates electronic literature, performance art, and site-specific installations.

Morrissey's work -- which includes My Name Is Captain, Captain (in collaboration with Lori Talley, Eastgate Systems, 2002) has been exhibited and published Internationally including Visionary Landscapes: the 2008 Electronic Literature Organization Conference, Vancouver, WA; The Iowa Review Web; Eastgate; E-Poetry 2005, London; Cerisy 2004, Normandy, France; Computers and Writing 2004; Language and Encoding, University of Buffalo; p0es1s: International Exhibition of Digital Poetry, Germany; the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; Rockford Art Museum; Chicago Cultural Center; Mobius, Boston, MA; and the DeCordova Museum. In 2006, Morrissey was a recipient of a Creative Capital/Andy Warhol Foundation Arts Writers' Grant.

For Authoring Software, Judd Morrissey writes about the creation of The Last Performance [dot org], a poetic "evolving collaborative space" in which an array of generative text -- collaboratively composed in thousands of "lenses" -- assembles and reassembles in an elegant dome architecture structure. In his words:

"The Last Performance is a constraint-based collaborative writing, archiving and text-visualization project responding to the theme of lastness in relation to architectural forms, acts of building, a final performance, and the interruption (that becomes the promise) of community."

.....complete statement

April 2015 Featured Work:
Regina Pinto

365 instances of the letter "A"
Produced by Regina Pinto, AlphaAlpha Uses Graphics, Animation, and Sound to Create an Effective Work of Collaborative Visual Poetry

A pril, 2015 begins with a replay of South American artist Regina Pinto's AlphaAlpha, for which she uses a variety of graphic art, animation, video, website design, and sound software applications to create a dynamic work of computer-mediated visual poetry. In this screen-viewed medium, where text can be encountered in a visual manner, AlphaAlpha focuses attention on the representation of the first letter of the alphabet, resulting in a work of collaborative literary art that, with its evocative connotations of "first letter", also imagines and illustrates how words and text can be represented on the Internet.

The AlphaAlpha project is a classic collaborative work in that participants were invited to create within the context of an interesting idea, and the producer incorporated their work in a social media-redolent framework, that, in this case, includes texts and visual implementations of the letter "A". The project both alludes to the vibrant South American tradition of visual poetry and calls attention to how text can be represented on the World wide Web. Participants were from all over the world including Joesér Alvarez; (Brazil) Isabel Aranda; (Chile) Muriel Frega; (Argentina) Satu Kaikkonen; (Finland) Maja Kalogera (Croatia) Yuko Otomo; (USA) Isabel Saij; (France) Reiner Strasser (Germany) and Araceli Zúñiga. (Mexico) among many others.... ......more about AlphaAlpha

March, 2015

Featured Authoring Software Statement
D. Fox Harrell
The GRIOT System

Figure 1: D. Fox Harrell: The GRIOT System Architecture

R esearcher, writer and artist, D. Fox Harrell is Associate Professor of Digital Media in the Comparative Media Studies Program and Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at MIT. Exploring the relationship between imaginative cognition and computation, Harrell's work focuses on the development of computer-media-narrative and authoring software that use elements of interactivity, social critique, cross-cultural narrative; cognitive semantics; gaming; and the social aspects of user-interface design.

His seminal GRIOT System utilizes code to create/generate interactive and significant "polymorphic" poems -- such as The Girl with Skin of Haints and Seraphs and Walking Blues Changes Undersea. GRIOT (named for West African storytellers who often incorporate improvisation in their performances) uses a combination of knowledge engineering, interactivity, cultural identity, and Joseph Goguen's mathematical approach to meaning representation called algebraic semiotics. Harrell has also worked with Kenny Chow to create a "new form of concrete polymorphic poetry inspired by Japanese renku poetry, iconicity of Chinese character forms, and generative models from contemporary art."

Visit Fox Harrell's statement on the Griot System to find out more.

February, 2015

Featured Authoring Software Statement
Antoinette LaFarge
Software: YIN MOO, Max/MSP

Antoinette LaFarge: "A diagram showing the communication flow among the various performers in Demotic 2006. The black area at left represents the telematic performers, while the white area is the stage and the gray is the audience."

A pioneer of net-linked performance, Antoinette LaFarge is the founder of the seminal online performance group The Plaintext Players. Her work -- which encompasses virtual and mixed realities, computer-mediated performance, net-based improvisation, online role-playing games, avatar performance, nonlinear narrative, fictive art, and geofiction -- has been exhibited at the Beall Center for Art + Technology; the Laguna Art Museum; Location One; the Sandra Gering Gallery; Xavier Lopez Gallery, London; Side Street Live, the New York International Fringe Festival; the Venice Biennale; and the European Media Arts Festival, among many others.

She is the creator/co-creator of a continuing series of mixed-reality performance works, and her works in collaboration with Robert Allen include The Roman Forum; Playing the Rapture; Galileo in America; and Demotic, the work described in this Authoring Software statement.

Antoinette LaFarge is Professor of Digital Media at the University of California, Irvine. She is also an Associate of the Institute of Cultural Inquiry, where she has worked on projects including The AIDS Bottle Project and The AIDS Chronicles.

In her statement for Authoring Software, she observes that "All of my mixed-reality performance works use different authoring strategies and tools. In general, however, all share a focus on multi-authoring, on improvisation in various forms, and on a fluid relationship between creation of text and creation of other forms, including software, vocals, sound, video, and movement. Perhaps the best introduction to my authorial practices is a 2004/2006 mixed-reality performance work entitled Demotic".

Visit Antoinette LaFarge 's Authoring Software page to find out more.

January, 2015

Featured Authoring Software Statement, January, 2015
Mark Marino
Marginalia in the Library of Babel, Software: Diigo
a show of hands, Software: Literatronica

M ark C. Marino is a new media writer whose work has appeared in the James Joyce Quarterly, volume 2 of the Electronic Literature Collection, The Iowa Review Web, Hypperhiz, The New River Journal, and SpringGun Press. Marino's current work also includes netprovs (often with Rob Wittig) and electronic literature for children, created with his family.

A noted collaborative scholar in the digital humanities, he teaches writing at the University of Southern California, where he directs the Humanities and Critical Code Studies Lab, including the Critical Code Studies Working Groups. Additionally, in 2011, he taught Game Studies and Critical Code Studies as a Fulbright Specialist at the University of Bergen. He is also Director of Communication for the Electronic Literature Organization.

Marino contributes two commentaries to Authoring Software. The first is Marginalia in the Library of Babel, which uses Diigo to create a fascinating work of literary information art. "It starts with Borges. It always starts with Borges, the god of our hyperlinked souls," Marginalia begins. "I fight the solitude of the vertigo he has imagined for me, and yet I may have finally found a way out of the labyrinth."

T he second is a show of hands, a work of electronic literature that Marino has also adapted into a stage production. a show of hands, is written with the adaptive hypertext system Literatronica, (aka Literatronic) created by Juan B. Guiterrez. In Marino's words, a show of hands "takes advantage of the system by offering the re-shuffleable lives of a Mexican American family, with storylines chopped up telenovela-style. Yet, their fates pull them inevitably toward the May 1 Immigration Reform marches.". Visit Mark Marino's Authoring Software page to find out more.

December, 2014

Pinkerton Road Studio Creates 20th Anniversary Edition of Jane Jensen's Gabriel Knight: Sins of the Fathers

In 1993, Sierra On-Line published the graphic interactive fiction Gabriel Knight: Sins of the Fathers, written, designed, and directed by Jane Jensen and named 1994 Adventure Game of the Year by Computer Gaming World. Against a backdrop of New Orleans, that was inspired by the novels of Anne Rice, Jensen's narrative of voodoo culture and bookstore owner/writer Gabriel Knight's quest to uncover his family's past became a classic in the creation of well-developed narrative in games and introduced users to a cast of characters that included memorable women, such Gabriel's grandmother and the Japanese American, Grace Nakimura. In the original version, Gabriel Knight was voiced by actor Tim Curry.

This year, recreating a classic of graphic interactive fiction, Pinkerton Road Studio and Phoenix Online Studios have released a 20th anniversary edition of Gabriel Knight: Sins of the Fathers. The October 2014 version utilizes high-res 3D graphics, new puzzles and scenes, and a remastered soundtrack by composer Robert Holmes, as well as behind-the-scenes information and interviews that detail the creation of the visuals and storyboards.

Jane Jensen, who went to work for Sierra Online in the early 1990's, has a degree in Computer Science from Anderson University in Indiana and worked as a systems programmer for Hewlett-Packard before she followed her vision of creating games at Sierra Online. She is the author of the adventure game Gray Matter, (2010) as well as the Gabriel Knight Series and the Philip K. Dick Award-nominated print book, Dante's Equation.

In 2012 -- with a vision of creating community supported narrative games for tablet and desktop computers -- she and her husband, musician and composer Robert Holmes, founded Pinkerton Road Studio in a Pennsylvania farmhouse. Among the studio's first projects was Moebius: Empire Rising, a Kickstarted adventure game released for PC and Mac in April 2014.

Founded by Ken Williams, an IBM programmer and by his wife, game designer Roberta Williams (one of the first, if not the first women to co-head a computer gaming company), the original publisher of Gabriel Knight, California-based Sierra Online, began in 1979 as On-Line Systems. With titles including King's Quest, Sierra Online (now owned by Activision Publishing) was an influential pioneer in the creation of graphic adventure games -- replacing text commands with a tool bar of clickable icons that allowed walking, getting, examining and other traditional Interactive Fiction actions.

Phoenix Online Studios is an award-winning game development studio with a mission of creating compelling games in which narrative and character development are primary.

For more information visit Pinkerton Road's Web page at http://pinkertonroad.com

Information about Phoenix Online Studios is available at http://www.POStudios.com

November, 2014

Featured Authoring Software Statement, November, 2014
Megan Heyward: of day, of night
Software: Director, Photoshop, After Effects, Pro Tools

Megan Heyward is a digital media artist who works at the intersection of narrative and new technologies. Her electronic literature projects -- I Am A Singer, of day, of night -- have been widely exhibited in Australia and internationally, including the Sydney Opera House; the Adelaide Festival; the Centre Pompidou; ISEA02; (Japan) Festival of Cinema and New Media; (Canada) Electrofringe; (Australia) Contact Zones; (USA) Videobrasil; Viper; (Switzerland), Stuttgarter Filmwinter; and ELO2012. Of day, of night was published by Eastgate Systems in 2005.

A Senior Lecturer in Media Arts and Production at the University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, Megan Heyward is currently working with narrative and locative technologies and the development of electronic literature for tablet devices.

For Authoring Software she describes the creation of her evocative new media narrative of day, of night.

"Conceived as an experimental digital narrative, of day, of night interweaves video, text, graphic and audio elements in a hybrid storytelling environment that moves between literary, cinematic and game-like approaches," she writes to begin her statement.

And she notes that "The work sought to be an enveloping, responsive, multimodal narrative -- one which responded to touch, made sounds, one where text would shimmer and undulate; as well as a work that made space, from a narrative perspective, for ideas of uncertainty, indecision, wandering and chance."

Visit Megan Heyward's statement on of day, of night to find out more.

July, 2014

Silvia Stoyanova and Ben Johnston
The Zibaldone Hypertext Research Platform

Software: HTML,TEI and associated XML technologies

Figure 1.Paragraph View from the Zibaldone Hypertext Research Platform Website

S ilvia Stoyanova holds a PhD in Italian literature from Columbia University with a dissertation on Giacomo Leopardi. She has taught Italian language, culture, cinema and literature at Columbia University and at Princeton University, and is presently a postdoctoral fellow at the Center for Digital Humanities at Universität Trier in Germany.

She is interested in exploiting the relational dimension offered by digital technologies for the dynamic mediation of modern fragmentary narratives, such as the intellectual notebook, and for the construction of knowledge sites. Since 2004 Silvia Stoyanova has been experimenting in private with hypertextual argumentative writing within the limits of Microsoft Word, i.e. with fonts, colors, diagrams, WordArt animations, hyperlinks, etc. She is optimistic that the current academic interest in technological approaches to the humanities will cultivate a fertile environment for scholarly hypertext.

B en Johnston is manager of Princeton University's Humanities Resource Center, founding member of the University's Digital Humanities Initiative, and Senior Instructional Technologist at Princeton's Educational Technologies Center. Johnston has worked with faculty from across the University to develop and maintain technology projects for teaching and research, and has taken a lead role in the development of several projects focusing on electronic databases for textual analysis and transcription such as the Princeton University Sefer Hasidim Database, (PUSHD) the Nationalism, Ethnicity and Self-Determination Index, (NESDi) and the Princeton University Geniza Project.

F or Authoring Software, Silvia Stoyanova and Ben Johnston discuss the creation of their Zibaldone Hypertext Research Platform, which migrates Italian poet and scholar Giacomo Leopardi's extraordinary hypertext precursor, the Zibaldone -- created in the 19th century over the course of 15 years -- to a web-based platform.

"In its larger scope", Stoyanova notes, "the project studies the structure of this fragmentary text and its author's techniques for its semantic organization as a model for adopting hypertext to mediate the phenomenological method and relativistic thought procedure at work in migrating similar research note collections into argumentative narrative."

Based on Leopardi's hypertextual organization of his notebook, Stoyanova and Johnston's innovative project also serves as a resource for potential uses of large databases to create hypertext literature.

Silvia Stoyanova and Ben Johnston: The Zibaldone Hypertext Research Platform

T he Zibaldone Hypertext Research Platform (which will be implemented in the summer of 2014 at http://zibaldone.princeton.edu [1]) is a digital reconstruction of the hypertextual design inherent in the research notebook (Zibaldone) of the acclaimed nineteenth century Italian poet and scholar Giacomo Leopardi. The project was undertaken at Princeton University in the Fall of 2010 by Dr. Silvia Stoyanova (French and Italian) and Ben Johnston. (Humanities Resource Center) Consultant: Dr. Clifford Wulfman, Coordinator of Library Digital Initiatives. The Zibaldone Hypertext Research Platform is currently being developed in collaboration with the Trier Center for Digital Humanities in Germany.

In its larger scope, the project studies the structure of this fragmentary text and its author's techniques for its semantic organization as a model for adopting hypertext to mediate the phenomenological method and relativistic thought procedure at work in migrating similar research note collections into argumentative narrative. This objective indeed recalls the original conception of hypertext by Ted Nelson as a medium for capturing the many possible trajectories in the course of developing an argument, instead of sacrificing them because of the limitations of the two-dimensional space of paper. It was precisely in an attempt to overcome the same limitations that Leopardi interspersed his notebook with thousands of cross-references, linking its apparently fragmented passages, creating the blueprint of a virtual hypertext. [2] [Figure 1]

Although its title and to some extent its contents reflect the humanist compiling of commonplace books, (in which readers and scholars extracted quotations from their readings) the Zibaldone is more akin to the modern intellectual diary and further exhibits features of the present-day academic blog, such as a date stamp and thematic tags for each entry. While Leopardi was noting down observations and commenting on books without an immediate objective in mind, at the same time he was also recording their connections to previous reflections and intended to eventually rework his material into formally cohesive discourses on a great variety of subjects -- from linguistics, to social mores, to aesthetic theory. For this purpose, he indexed his material thematically and added more cross-references between passages while re-reading.

Figure 2. 1827 Index is a detail of the beginning of the index Giacomo Leopardi wrote in 1827 for his Zibaldone. (as implemented on the Zibaldone Hypertext Research Platform) "1827 index" has about 800 themes and subthemes.

.......................complete story

June, 2014

Hold the Light:
The 2014 Electronic Literature Organization Conference,
Milwaukee, WI, June 2014

W ith panels on "Models of Narrative", "Troubadours of Information", "Writing and Riding the Net", "Philosophical Approaches", and "Literary Games"; a "Developing for New Platforms" Roundtable; fifty new works responding to the question: "What distinguishes Electronic Literature?"; and much more, the 2014 Electronic Literature Organization Conference will convene in Milwaukee from June 19-21. ELO2014, Hold the Light, is hosted at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee by electronic literature pioneer and Professor in the UWM Department of English, Stuart Moulthrop. Featured works of electronic literature will be exhibited at the Digital Humanities Lab and the Conference Room, both in the UWM Golda Meir Library.

"In addition to the conference's continuing concern with particular arts and ideas, Hold the Light invites thinking about what electronic literature can mean at a moment when all communications are touched by computation and digital networks," Moulthrop notes.

"It is a watershed moment in that the organization is giving out the first of two annual prizes, The N. Katherine Hayles Award for Criticism of Electronic Literature and The Robert Coover Award for a Work of Electronic Literature", ELO President Dene Grigar writes in a statement that accompanies Authoring Software's coverage of ELO2014. "Hayles will be present to give a keynote address and announce the recipient of Hayles award."

Keynote talks will also be given by Jill Walker Rettberg, University of Bergen, writer Illya Szilak, and Lane Hall, and co-founder of the Overpass Light Brigade. . "...Neither preserving nor directly opposing the conventions of print-lit, e-lit functions as a reflecting apparatus that unmasks language and meaning-making as machines through the revelation of its own machine-works," Illya Selzki notes in the abstract for her keynote. "Using multifarious examples from the work of Alan Bigelow, Mez Breeze, Emily Short, Jason Nelson, and others, I will show how these re-inscribe obstruction, glitch, error, randomness and obsolescence as potentiality... "

The Conference name "Hold the Light," was inspired by the Milwaukee-based collective Overpass Light Brigade, who use LED signboards to convey activist/community messages. such as the message PRACTICE PEACE at a vigil for Sikhs killed in Oak Creek, Wisconsin.

Presenters in sessions that range from "A Feel for Algorithms" to "Children's Elit" include Sandy Baldwin, Kathi Inman Berens, Serge Bouchardon, Giovanna di Rosario, Carolyn Guertin, Lori Emerson, Dene Grigar, Leonardo Flores, D. Fox Harrell, Dominic Kao and Chong-U Lim, Marjorie Luesebrink, Mark Marino and Rob Wittig, Talan Memmott, Nick Montfort, Judd Morrissey, Kwabena Opoku-Agyemang, Jessica Pressman, Mariusz Pisarski, Aaron Reed, Scott Rettberg, and Anastasia Salter among many others.

Curated by Kathi Inman Berens, the exhibition Hold the Light includes artists from France, Poland, Australia, Denmark, Norway, Canada, Ireland, Slovakia, Hong Kong, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In addition to evenings of performance, artists will also present their work in demo sessions, where they'll talk informally with guests who traverse their works. "It's a rare convergence for so many elit artists to be in one place at one time", Kathi Inman Berens notes in her statement about the exhibition. "The point of gathering live when often we can access each other's work online is to curate not just works but also conditions for artistic and intellectual surprises."

"...what makes the work that the ELO does absolutely imperative in this 'Digital Information Age', as scholar Paul Ceruzzi calls it, is its leadership in developing methods for evaluating quality of 'digital' creative and critical works and its insights into cataloging a growing body of 'digital' fiction, poetry, and other literary forms..., President Dene Grigar writes in a statement for Authoring Software's coverage of ELO2014. "ELO 2014 Hold the Light provides us the opportunity to continue this important work together for three magical days. I hope to see you there."

EL02014 Media Arts Show:
Anastasia Salter and John Murray
View from Within
"...The project was inspired by Scott McCloud's vision for the future of webcomics as an infinite canvas, with the browser as a portal to an experience unbounded by the printed page. The work is constructed from layers of hand-drawn illustrations. A new version, built in collaboration with John Murray in Unity and designed for an augmented reality platform, will be on display at the ELO 2014 Media Arts Show." Anastasia Salter

Complete Story

January, 2014:
Pathfinders: 25 Years of Experimental Literary Art at MLA 2014

Pathfinders: Documenting Curation as Critical Practice
Curatorial Statement by Dene Grigar

P athfinders: 25 Years of Experimental Literary Art, the exhibit that opens on January 9 at the Modern Language Association 2014 Convention, begins with the premise that curation is a critical practice born out of research and, so, constitutes a scholarly activity. While this sentiment is not a controversial one in fields like Fine Art, where curating works of art relies on deep knowledge of art, history, and culture; highly honed interpretative and evaluative skills; and a great deal of creativity, it is relatively new idea for the Humanities. The recent book, Digital_Humanities, however, makes a strong case for curation as a "fundamental activit[y] at the core of Digital Humanities. Just as in Fine Art, curation in Digital Humanities involves "the selection and organization of materials in an interpretative framework, argument, or exhibit" that "brings humanistic values into play in ways that [are] difficult to achieve in traditional museum or library settings" [1]

To make the connection between scholarship and curating absolutely clear, this exhibit is built directly out of Pathfinders: Documenting the Experience of Early Digital Literature, a digital preservation project led by Stuart Moulthrop and me and sponsored by a National Endowment for the Humanities Level II Start Up grant.

Pathfinders, the project, is an unusual digital preservation scholarly activity in that its intent is to capture not just the work of art but also the user's experience with the work. In that regard, we have videotaped each of four electronic literature artists reading through their work. This reading we call a "traversal" because it leads a viewer through a work that is both interactive and multi-linear, from its beginning to some level of closure. We add to the artists' traversals, those by readers, some of whom have never experienced electronic literature before or who may not be familiar with early digital literature. Interviews with the artists and readers augment the information, which will be edited, collected, and eventually disseminated in a multimedia book. So, the first order of selection for Pathfinders came out of an overarching conceptual framework focusing on a particular artifact -- early digital literature --- and particular seminal works constituting experiments with digital texts that can no longer be experienced on current computing devices: Stuart Moulthrop's Victory Garden; John McDaid's Uncle Buddy's Phantom Funhouse; Judy Malloy's Uncle Roger; and Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Gir. In essence, they all comprise works that are quickly becoming lost works of literary art.

John McDaid Traversing Uncle Buddy's Phantom Funhouse
in The Electronic Literature Lab (ELL)

P athfinders, the exhibit, showcases the work that Stuart Moulthrop and I have, heretofore, completed on the project -- that is, all of the videotaping of the traversals and interviews for each of the four artists -- and extends it into current experimental work. In that vein, the exhibit is divided into two sections, with early experimental works organized at the front of the space and current work, beyond.

Thus, the exhibit opens with Station 1, entitled "Paths to Digital Literature", featuring four vintage Macintoshes from my lab (The Electronic Literature Lab, or ELL). Here visitors find an Apple IIe displaying Uncle Roger; the Mac Classic featuring Victory Garden; the Mac LC 575, Patchwork Girl; and the LC 580, Uncle Buddy's Phantom Funhouse. The addition of Bill Bly's We Descend to the exhibit, showcased alongside McDaid's work, hints to the next phase of Pathfinders-- a partnership with the University of Maryland's Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities, where Bly's work has been collected. Plans also include the collaboration with the University of Colorado Boulder's Media Archaeology Lab, led by Lori Emerson. As mentioned previously, these five works represent early experiments with digital literature, pioneering efforts by artists that are part and parcel of high art that parallel the impetus to experiment that also occurs in print literature. This particular argument lies at the heart of the exhibit, Electronic Literature & Its Emerging Forms, that Kathi Inman Berens and I curated at the Library of Congress in April 2013, where we showed, for example, the connection between concrete and kinetic poetry, cut up poetry and hypertext, among other ideas.

A t Pathfinders, accompanying each computer in Station 1 will also be an iPad displaying raw video footage from the traversals and interviews taken during the Pathfinders project data collection. This additional material will make it possible for visitors to experience the works, first hand, on the computer on which readers would have originally experienced the work when it was first released and, then, see and hear the artists traverse the work themselves and talk about the production of the work. Culturally and intellectually situating the works in this way aims to provide an enriched intellectual experience for exhibit visitors.

Past this section of the exhibit visitors find "Current Directions" where they discover contemporary experiments with digital literature. As Stuart and I point out at the exhibit website, it is our contention that just as hypertext authoring systems like Storyspace and HyperCard were seen as new technologies that allowed for highly experimental writing in the 1980s and 1990s. [Bolter,2] contemporary technologies like Leap Motion, augmented reality software, and other technologies also lend themselves for compelling experimental literary work.

The process of selection of this section of the exhibit centers on large categories of works and employs terminology that may be familiar to Digital Humanists visiting the exhibit. So, here we find stations entitled "Multimedia Books and Apps", "Immersive Environments", "Participatory Media", "Augmented Reality", "Physical Computing", and "Mixed Mediums". In all cases, we selected only one or a couple of works to highlight, aiming for a small amount of art to exhibit so that visitors can, ostensibly, experience all of the art during the convention. We also feature some new and upcoming artists, who may not yet be well known among those working in electronic literature as well include artists from outside of the U.S. to offer a global perspective. And finally, we have chosen some works that are so new, like Amaranth Borsuk, Kate Durbin, and Ian Hatcher's Abra, that they have come to us in beta versions.

A t Station 2 "Multimedia Books and Apps", visitors find Samantha Gorman & Danny Cannizzaro's PRY, Amaranth Borsuk, Kate Durbin, & Ian Hatcher's Abra, and Andreas Muller's "For All Seasons". Displayed on iPads, these works represent new forms of digital publication. While multimedia books can have close resemblances to websites, apps represent the first born-digital object with no corresponding print cognate. From this perspective, they constitute compelling objects of critical study, particularly as an environment for literary production. Station 3 "Immersive Environments" offers Christine Wilks and Andy Campbell's Inkubus, an interactive playable narrative that utilizes both 2 and 3D technologies for immersing readers in the work. Station 4 "Participatory Media" highlights Jay Bushman's tweeting of Mike Daisey's performance piece, The @gony @nd the Ecst@sy of Steve Jobs, and, so, represents a work of twitterature, the first featured at a MLA exhibit. At Station 5 "Augmented Reality", visitors will find Jacob Garbe's Closed Rooms, Soft Whispers, a work that brings together analog and digital into a haunting virtual experience. Station 6 "Physical Computing" hosts Josh Tanenbaum and Karen Tanenbaum's The Reading Glove. I experienced a version of this work at the International Digital Media and Arts Association conference in Vancouver, Canada in 2011, where, at the time, both artists were graduate students studying at Simon Fraser University. While the original offered a tabletop interface with which to interact with the objects, this portable version, created especially for the Pathfinders exhibit, utilizes a computer screen. Finally, Station 7 "Mixed Mediums" offers both Erik Loyer's Leap Motion experiment with physical gestures and digital narrative, "Breathing Room", and Jason Nelson's experiment with speech and text, Speech/Media_To_Text_Poetry_Translation.

The Pathfinders Team: Stuart Moulthrop and Dene Grigar, working onsite at Princeton.
Photos: J. Malloy

W hile critical work in the Humanities has traditionally occurred in the context of an essay aimed at a print publication, the critical work represented by the Pathfinders exhibit is centrally situated in the context of an activity. In this regard, it is both showing and telling about one's research. In so doing, it places a heavy emphasis on empirical, direct experience with objects as they combine with other objects in the exhibit space, with other human observers experiencing the objects, and with objects' and observers' relationship with the physical environment in which they are found; writing that generates from this activity serves as documentation of that primary intellectual activity and articulates, scriptually, the theoretical underpinnings and methodologies used to produce and execute the activity that is implicit in the act of curation. In essence, what Pathfinders seeks to demonstrate is an important concept in Digital Humanities -- that doing is not separate from thinking.

Stuart and I hope if you are planning to attend the MLA 2014 Convention in Chicago that you will visit our Pathfinders exhibit and experience, firsthand, our research into past and present experimental digital literature.


1. Burdick, Anne, Johanna Drucker, Peter Lunenfeld, Todd Presner and Jeffrey Schnapp, Digital_Humanities. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012. p. 17 (my emphasis)

2. Bolter, Jay, Writing Space: Computers, Hypertext, and the Remediation of Print, Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991. p. 23


Pathfinders: Documenting the Experience of Early Digital Literature
led by Dene Grigar, Washington State University Vancouver, and Stuart Moulthrop, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

129th MLA Annual Convention
Chicago,9-12 January 2014

Digital Humanities at MLA 2014
A list of 77 Digital Humanities sessions at MLA 2014, compiled by Mark Sample

Chercher le texte:
the 2013 Conference of the Electronic Literature Organization
Will Bring Electronic Literature to the Public in Paris, September 23-28

S et in Paris, Cherchez le texte, the 2013 Conference of the Electronic Literature Organization, (ELO) will bring to the public and the International digital literature community a multitude of forms of digital literature presented in exhibitions, performances, documentation, and panels/critical discussion -- beginning with a session on French digital poetry and also including two sessions on "Electronic Literature as World Literature".

Dominant themes at the heart of the Conference are:

A desire to present to a large public the many forms of electronic literature that have developed internationally

The presentation of historic genres of electronic literature, such as hyperfiction and generative poetry, in conjunction with contemporary genres and platforms of contemporary electronic literature, for example, the touch pad works by Collectif i-Trace, Caitlin Fisher, and Erik Loyer that are included in the exhibition

And the lineage of electronic literature in relationship to the work of younger practitioners

Cherchez le texte, the first ELO Conference to be held in Europe, is hosted by the Laboratoire Paragraphe and the EnsAD. (Ecole nationale suprieure des Arts Décoratifs) The organizing committee is chaired by Professor Philippe Bootz, (Paris 8) who is the co-founder of L.A.I.R.E, a French collective in digital literature and Transitoire Observable, an international collective in programmed poetry.

T he official languages of the conference will be French and English. In their words:

"Au cours d'une semaine intense de débats, performances, conférences et expositions, la littérature numérique s'offre à lire, à voir, à entendre, à jouer et à toucher en divers lieux culturels parisiens."

"The ELO is a family made up of hundreds of people distributed around the world but united by a love of electronic literature and experimental writing," observes incoming ELO President Dene Grigar, Director and Associate Professor of the Creative Media & Digital Culture Program at Washington State University Vancouver. "And so what I like about ELO 2013 Cherchez le texte is that it introduces the idea of an annual conference. We can now come together more frequently to reconnect and to share our ideas and work. It is a celebration of our family in one of the most beautiful cities in the world, one with a rich tradition of experimental literature, where electronic literature will be completely at home."

ELO Vice President and Director of West Virginia University's Center for Literary Computing, Sandy Baldwin points out that the conference will also be an excellent showcase for French electronic literature, as well as for emerging writers and scholars.

There is a long tradition of e-lit, particularly generative and algorithmic poetry and narrative in France, with its own unique characteristics, he explains. "As to young scholars and artists: many of the presenters are new faces, doing brilliant work, and looking at e-lit in new ways. In the end, this is the most important thing a conference can do -- keep the field fresh."

Launched under the leadership of the Laboratoire Paragraphe, (Universitè Paris 8) the Excellence Arts-H2H Lab, and Laboratory Music and Computer Marseille, Cherchez le texte is one of the most important international events of digital literature ever to have been organized in France.

"A lot of the credit goes to Professor Philippe Bootz of the University of Paris 8. (Saint Denis) Bootz and his colleagues worked hard to schedule events at tremendous venues, and of course Paris is full of amazing locations," Sandy Baldwin emphasizes. "We're starting with performances at the Pompidou Museum, followed by a day of presentations at the Bibliothè que Nationale de France. (BNF) The main conference events are at EnsAD, with additional performances at Le Cube. In all, these are tremendous showcases for e-lit, and the organization is honored to be featured in these venues."

E LO 2013 will be followed by ELO 2014 in Milwaukee, and then the conference will return to Europe for ELO 2015 in Bergen Norway. "And hopefully we'll eventually hold conferences in Australia, South American, and elsewhere," Badwin notes.

Exhibitions and a Series of Performances Present Electronic Literature Throughout Paris

Phillipe Bootz: Detail from Ping Pong Poem,
to be presented in a series of Evenings of Performances at le Cube, Issy-les-Moulineaux

Les littèratures numèriques d'hier á demain

O rganized by le laboratoire Musique et Informatique de Marseille (MIM) in collaboration with le Labo BnF, (Bibliothèque Nationale de France François-Mitterand) and le labex ARTS-H2H de l'universitè Paris 8, among others, the exhibition Les littèratures numèriques d'hier á demain will open on September 24 at le Labo BnF and run until December 1, 2013.

The gallery will feature digital poetry created for the exhibition by Brian Barrachina, Douglas Duteil, Cassandra Ribotti, as well as Amaranth Borsuk and Brad Bouse's Between Page and Screen.

The concurrent virtual gallery includes an international selection of web-based works of electronic literature.

Illya Szilak: title page from Queerskins. The title page includes images by Illya Szilak and Pelin Kirca; graphic design by Cyril Tsiboulski who also created the interactive experience for Queerskins. Queerskins will be on exhibition in the Virtual Gallery, le Labo BnF, through December 1, 2013.

Among many other works, the web-based exhibition at le Labo BnF includes:

M.D. Coverley (USA) Tarim Tapestries
Chris Funkhouser (USA) Funk's SoundBox 2012
Catherine Lenoble (France) Petit bain
Judy Malloy (USA) From Ireland with Letters
Maria Mencia (UK) Transient self-portrait
Jason Nelson (Australia) untitled art/poetry games
Gao Tian (France) je l'ai dèjè oublièe;
Elvia Wilk (Germany) Kenny Drama

plus works by Mez Breeze and Andy Campbell, J.R. Carpenter, Loss Pequeño Glazier. Jean-François Gleyze, Mark Marino, Mark Sample, Illya Szilak and many others.

JR Carpenter: ..and by islands I mean paragraphs
"...and by islands I mean paragraphs casts a reader adrift in a sea of white space dotted with computer-generated paragraphs whose fluid compositions draw upon a literary corpus of island texts ranging from Shakespeare's The Tempest, to Bishop's Crusoe in England. Collectively these islands constitute a topographical map of a sustained practice of reading and re-reading and writing and re-writing islands...and by islands, I do mean paragraphs."
on exhibition in the Virtual Gallery, le Labo BnF, through December 1, 2013.

Festival Evenings of Performances

D uring Cherchez le texte, a series of elit-based performances will take place at venues including Petite salle du centre Pompidou; BnF François-Mitterand Grand Auditorium; Le Cube, Centre de crèation numèrique; and EnsAD.

Hortense Gauthier and Phillipe Boisnard will perform Contact / HP Process at Le Cube:
"A man and a woman write to each other through intermediary screens and from behind their keyboards they improvise a dialogue in which they deconstruct and blur network chat and relationship codes in a poetic, performance-driven way."

Philippe Bootz will perform his Pong ping poème, a work which is part of his "little poems which are uncomfortable to read" series. In Pong ping poème, 50 texts are read in a random order. But the audio is controlled by a ping pong game, and the performer must win in order to be heard.

Chercher le texte: The Complete Story

June, 2013

E-Poetry 2013 to be Held at Kingston University, London in June;
Program will Feature Presentations, Exhibitions, Performances, and a Pedagogy Colloquium

Created by Zuzana Husárová and L'ubomír Panák, the interactive textual and new media performance I : * ttter will be exhibited in the E-Poetry 2013 exhibition Words Unstable on the Table, at the Riverside Gallery, curated by María Mencía.

F ollowing Festivals in Buffalo, West Virginia, London, Paris, and Barcelona, E-Poetry, a seminal International Festival of digital literature and scholarship, returns to London. Presented by the Buffalo-NY based Electronic Poetry Center, with the support of Kingston University London and the Watermans Art Centre, E-Poetry 2013 will take place from June 17-20 at Kingston University.

"This Festival is intended as a worldwide gathering, different perspectives convening at one time," the Festival notes. "We hope to build connections that are sustainable, energizing, and that reach across disciplines. More importantly, the 'poetry' in 'E-Poetry' does not signal a genre preference but an ORIGIN -- MAKING as a means of realizing art, a delight in digital literary invention. Our emphasis is on the multiple literary and artistic ramifications of digital media writing and its critical reception through extending modes and practices that transcend limits of genre or specific technologies. We celebrate new voices, emergent thoughtful articulation, performance, and cultural breadth in expression."

"every presenter is a keynote"

Poets, scholars and researchers who will present at E-Poetry 2013 include Amaranth Borsuk, Serge Bouchardon, Andy Campbell, John Cayley, Giovanna Di Rosario, Natalia Fedorova, Penny Florence, Leonardo Flores, María Mencía, Nick Montfort, Jason Nelson, Sarah Tremlett, Talon Memmott, Christine Wilks, and Jody Zellen, among many others. Conference presentations also include a pre-festival Pedagogic Colloquium hosted by María Mencía, artist-researcher and Senior Lecturer in New Media Theory and Digital Media Practice in the School of Performance and Screen Studies at Kingston University.

"Every presenter fits nicely and, as always, at E-Poetry -- every presenter is a keynote!" Loss Pequeño Glazier, Director of the Electronic Poetry Center and the E-Poetry festivals, emphasizes.

"Where else do you get so many keynotes, one after another?!"

"....twists and turns with dazzling treats at the end of gorgeously honed paths"

Poet Loss Pequeño Glazier, who is a professor in the Department of Media Study, SUNY Buffalo, is also enthusiastic about the breadth and the open format of the program. "It's got range, style, diverse conversations, threads, themes, motifs; a stunning range of innovative performances; ...it presents twists and turns with dazzling treats at the end of gorgeously honed paths; it's rich with UK presenters; it includes special panels from Russia, on Latin American digital poetry, presentations from Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Australia, a special guest winging it from Hong Kong, plus we also include Western Europe and North America. Lots of newcomers all around!"

The program also includes presenters from Peru, Iran, Mexico, Greece, Puerto Rico, Latvia, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Norway, Sweden, France, Australia, Canada, and the US. "I am especially excited about the number of women artists and scholars and younger participants, who appear in the program in highly visible places," Glazier notes.

A Pre-Festival Pedagogic Colloquium

E-Poetry 2013 will begin with a pre-festival Pedagogic Colloquium, produced by poet and Kingston University Professor, María Mencía.

Among the professors, poets, and researchers in electronic literature, who will address the practice and theory of electronic literature in the classroom, are:

Serge Bouchardon, University of Technology of Compiègne, France
Leonardo Flores on teaching with ongoing scholarly blogging
Judy Malloy (virtually) on Electronic Literature Authoring Systems
María Mencía on "Theory as analysis and methodology in practice-based creative media"
Jeneen Naji, National University of Ireland Maynooth
Kate Pullinger on "pedagogy in the field of where creative writing meets technology"
Maya Zalbidea Paniagua, Universidad La Salle, Madrid

Other presenters include Amaranth Borsuk, University of Washington, Bothell; Antonella Castelvedere, University Campus Suffolk; Maria Engberg, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden; Zuzana Husárová, Comenius University and Masaryk University, Slovakia; and Talan Memmott, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.

Words Unstable on the Table

Curator María Mencía's invitation to the E-Poetry 2013 exhibition, Words Unstable on the Table.

In her words from the catalogue:

"The works in the exhibition touch upon a variety of themes, literary, cultural, social and historical aspects such as; nature, identity, gender, multilingualism, reading, remixing, translation, evanescence, online-communication and digital culture. And they do so by combining different software, programming languages, mobile technology, network possibilities and new media tools, to produce a wide spectrum of creative practice in the form of game like structures, videos, digital-poems, net.art and language new media art." ........ complete story

Editorial: Introductory Remarks:
Authoring Software for Pedagogic Practice
2013 E-Poetry Festival, Kingston University, London, June 17

Looking at e-poetry through the lens of 27 years of creating electronic literature, I would like to celebrate the role of authoring systems as core components in the expression of individual vision -- not only for experienced practitioners but also for students. .......complete text

Featured Link: Taroko Gorge by Nick Montfort
Accompanied by Electronic Literature Community Homage-Interventions

Detail: Nick Montfort: Taroko Gorge

I n January 2009, during a visit to Taroko Gorge National Park in Taiwan, MIT Professor and electronic poet Nick Montfort created a work of generative poetry using Python. He finished Taroko Gorge on the journey home and then ported it to JavaScript and made it accessible on the World Wide Web.

It wasn't too long afterwards that Scott Rettberg appropriated Nick's authoring system and created the urban intervention "Tokyo Garage". Scott was followed by J.R. Carpenter, whose "Whisper Wire" transported the landscape to the age of technology.

And an electronic literature community tradition had begun.

There were subsequently a series of works that in response, Nick lined through. (although they were still visible)

They included, among others:
Mark Sample's homage to George Takei, Andrew Plotkin's duet between the code and the text, Kathi Inman Berens kitchen-situated Tournedo Gorge, and Leonardo Flores' homage to Gary Snyder's mountain poetry.

Offering the potential for student exploration of the uses of an elegant authoring system,Taroko Gorge -- rooted in landscape description, constantly changing -- succeeds because Montfort carefully planned the flow of the work and created meaningful data sets (allowing, for instance, for transitive verbs and imperfect verbs) and in the process created a resonant, contemporary poetry array that inspired collaborative response.

The resultant eliterature community works have been reviewed by Leonardo Flores at http://academic.uprm.edu/flores/transmogrify.html, accompanied by his own remix of the poets and the process.

And/or, visit Taroko Gorge by Nick Montfort et. al.

Detail: Judy Malloy: Scholars Contemplate the Irish Beer
Authoring System: Nick Montfort: Taroko Gorge


Below are archived statements create during the 2008 Electronic Literature Organization Conference and during the 2008 Seminar on Electronic Literature in Europe Many of these statements will be retooled with separate pages in 2014.

Stefan Müller Arisona
Exploding, Plastic & Inevitable
Soundium, Ableton Live, Modul 8

Swiss new media artist/researcher Stefan Müller Arisona works with real-time multimedia systems and live multimedia composition and performance software. His audio-visual performance narratives have been shown and performed internationally. Currently a post-doctoral researcher at the Chair for Information Architecture of ETH Zurich, Switzerland, his research includes the development of the Soundium multimedia performance platform; (with Steve Gibson) as well as mathematical modeling for the performance of musical gestures and interactive software systems for urban design and simulation. He is co-editor, with Randy Adams and Steve Gibson, of Transdisciplinary Digital Art - Sound, Vision and the New Screen

The work he performed at the 2008 Electronic Literature Organization Conference in Vancouver, WA is a 21st Century reenactment of The Exploding Plastic Inevitable a seminal multimedia work that was originally created and performed by Andy Warhol with Lou Reed's The Velvet Underground and Nico in the 1960's.

More information: San Francisco Performance of Exploding, Plastic & Inevitable at Swissnex

Exploding, Plastic & Inevitable

Since Steve Gibson and I are going to present the Exploding, Plastic & Inevitable show (also accompanied by a live audio and visuals workshop) during the conference, it might be best to give some background for the software used there.

Authoring tools we're using

audio: Ableton Live
visuals (Steve): Modul 8
visuals (Stefan): Soundium, see below.

Steve may have to add a few things, he did a lot of custom stuff for other projects, such as Virtual DJ.

At this point I can give more information about the custom software Soundium:

Soundium is a research multimedia authoring and processing framework. It has been used for many live visuals performances and several digital art installations. However, it is not really an "end user product" and requires a quite a bit of multimedia processing knowledge in order to use it.

written in java and c++, and based on open source software: linux, gcc, x11, ffmpeg, etc.

available for free download
further infos are at: http://www.corebounce.org/wiki/Main/Publications

Alan Bigelow
What They Said

Flash, Sound Studio, Photoshop

Alan Bigelow combines images, text, audio and video to create interactive web-based digital fictions that address contemporary issues including philosophy, religion and the uses of mass media.

His work has been published and/or exhibited at Turbulence.org; Los Angeles Center for Digital Arts; Freewaves; Hallwalls Contemporary Arts Center; The New River; and E-Poetry 2007.

A Professor in the Humanities Department at Medaille College in upstate NY, he was recently a visiting online lecturer in Creative Writing and New Media at De Montfort University, UK

What They Said

Work Description:

What They Said (2008) is an online work which is a commentary on mass media and its use of authoritarian messages, both outright and subliminal, to influence culture and political will. The work is created in Flash and uses a synthesized combination of text, images, video, and audio; its interface is a hybrid of television and radio visual elements intended to enhance the user experience and require their participation in the viewing of the work.

What They Said is meant not just as a commentary on mass media, and how it is used, both intentionally and by media programmers' blind acquiescence to current political paradigms, to distort meaning and manipulate citizens worldwide. It also suggests our own culpability, as the ones who turn on the media devices and listen to the messages. We bear some responsibility for the perpetuation of these messages, and we are the ones, if we have the will, to turn them off.

To progress through What They Said, the viewer must first turn on the media "device." They then use a slider, reminiscent of an old-style radio channel indicator, to "read" the various messages. These messages--instructions for work, family life, cultural beliefs, and aesthetics--are archetypal in nature and use a linguistic double-speak favored by many governments, present and past. The viewer's choice of messages is random, snatched, using the slider, from the static ether visually (and auditorially) presented in the piece. When the last message is read, the piece automatically generates a short closing visual followed by a subtitle. Total viewing time is approximately five minutes.


This work, like all my other work, was created in Flash, with imported files that were edited in Sound Studio and Photoshop. Flash is a very resilient and robust application that is relatively easy to learn and remarkably obedient to the unusual demands of digital storytelling.

Right now, the most interesting challenge to me (other than creating new work!) is how to move online Flash works into the mainstream of gallery shows. In the United States, at least, it appears that many galleries are not used to considering online works as representative material for exhibitions; when asked, though, many are intrigued and ask to see the work, even when it is not within their usual call for submissions.

Part of their reluctance to accept web works/Net Art is the difficulty of pricing such work for sale. Rhizome.org has a revealing interview with Aron Namenwirth of artMovingProjects on this topic
( Interview with Aron Namenwirth of artMovingProjects)

Steve Ersinghaus
The Life of Geronimo Sandoval

Steve Ersinghaus is a digital artist, fiction writer, and poet. He is the author with of 100 Days: 100 drawings 100 poems; (with Carianne Mack) Stoning Field; The Life of Geronimo Sandoval; and the hypertext poem That Night. (Drunken Boat, Spring 2009)

Steve Ersinghaus earned his Masters in Fine Arts from the University of Texas-El Paso. He teaches writing, literature, and new media at Tunxis Community College in Farmington, Connecticut.

The Life of Geronimo Sandoval

The Life of Geronimo Sandoval, a novel in hypertext, took approximately four years to complete. I had originally begun the work with a fairly conventional plan: to write a book-based novel. I began with an image, two people talking by a river in southern New Mexico, and quickly realized that the novel and its characters wanted a differentform: the novel needed a form appropriate and implicit to the voice of its first person narrator/hero, Ham Sandoval.

I found the form with the help of Eastgate Systems' Storyspace. The initial image of The Life of Geronimo Sandoval became not merely a place to begin writing the novel but an episode within a larger narrative that could appear at any appropriate time given Ham Sandoval's method of storytelling. Storyspace because the appropriate tool to explore Ham Sandoval.

Storyspace is hypertext authoring software. I would also call it an authoring framework. It provides not just the requirements of a word processor or a means of reading and presenting hypertext, but an environment for creating, organizing, revising, visualizing, and distributing hyperlinked works. I could also write the previous sentence this way: Storyspace can be the proper tool for works of art that demand hypertext as an implicit form. What Storyspace provided for Sandoval was a means of finding the voice and logic of the narrative.

In Storyspace's work environment I could find sequences and sections swiftly and accurately and work with multiple writing spaces simultaneously. With Storyspace, the writer may employ a variety of link types to the text as well as control how links behave under certain conditions. Storyspace provides map, chart, and outline views that provide flexible means of examining narrative space. Keyword assignment, search facility, and the ability to import other digital media into the environment make Storyspace a powerful creative tool with ample aesthetic possibilities not just for the study of technology but of the human lifeworld.

Susan M. Gibb
Flash, Tinderbox, Storyspace

Susan M. Gibb holds an A.S. degree in English from Tunxis Community College and is currently supplementing with courses based in Creative Writing, and New Media. She is a writer of fiction as well as non fiction and poetry, has served as editor of otto, the Tunxis literary journal, and has produced and edited a traditional archery magazine sold in the U.S. and abroad. Her workshop session on "The Hypertext Effect: The Transfiguration of Writing and The Writer" was presented at Hypertext 2008 in Pittsburgh, PA.

She is always working on hypertext projects using Storyspace and Tinderbox software and exporting for presentation online, has published some work on her website, Hypercompendia, and is currently participating in 100 Days: Summer 2009, a collaboration of individual artists producing a work each day for 100 days. Susan Gibb also writes online on her websites dedicated to Literature, Writing, Hypertext, New Media forms, and life's "story moments."

My introduction to hypertext was in a contemporary fiction course, and there was a bit of resistance to what appeared to be a jungle of story. However, it intrigued me enough as a writer to want to master not only the reading but the writing of narrative into the hypertext environment.

With the Storyspace program offered by Eastgate Systems in mind, I prepared by planning out what I felt was the perfect story to be told in hypertext. Paths is a story of a couple who fell in love in college and who may or may not have ended up together. What other medium could so entwine the coulda's, woulda's, and shoulda's of such a basic choice in life?

Once I got the Storyspace software, it was a matter of transferring what were basically four paths of stories into the format. Very, very easy to do. Even though the manual is one of the best I'd ever encountered in its pointed instructions and illustrations, the software was so well arranged that it wasn't necessary to consult except for specific maneuvers.

I soon realized that the structure I had envisioned for the story was not using Storyspace to its optimum performance capabilities with its opportunities for exploration into time and character. The excellent Map View was the best to work into as it enabled the placement of the parts within the whole. All the originally planned links were severed and I let the stories flow into each other from more natural intersecting points. Past and present have no certainty in this narrative and the interplay of memory and perspective opened a playground for true character development. 75 writing spaces -- or text boxes -- stretched into 300, all because the event of hypertext invites the author to tarry in an area of the mind that might otherwise be kept from the reader.

I am working on more in the Storyspace software and find that as with the first effort, the format focuses on what is vital to a very small portion of story without hindering the creative flow. Particularly in editing, I've found that the writing improves as it seeks the most concise yet imaginative manner of telling a tale; each box of words being self-contained and asking the writer, as much as the reader, to linger a bit, just as does the form of a poem.

The full journey of writing in Storyspace has been documented in my Hypercompendia weblog and can be read at Storyspace Index

Dylan Harris
All Hands
Sound Forge, Soundtracker Pro, Audacity, Studio Artist, Paint Shop
Pro, the Gimp, GarageBand, Final Cut Express, Windows Notepad

Originally from England, now living in Dublin, "arts explorer" Dylan Harris is a poet and software engineer whose print and multimedia poetry has appeared in print and online.

I'll write a poem using pen, paper and beer. I'll use Sound Forge, Soundtracker Pro or Audacity, depending on reverb, to make an MP3 recital. I'll assemble a videocast using the recital, photos processed in Studio Artist (I like it), text in Paint Shop Pro (windows fonts) or the Gimp (unix fonts), in GarageBand (simple) or Final Cut Express (complex). The videocast is posted using iWeb.

Except for videocasts, I prepare web pages using Windows Notepad, because it doesn't exclude things its designers didn't expect.

Ian Hatcher
Signal to Noise, Opening Sources

Ian Hatcher is a writer, musician, and programmer from Seattle. His work has been presented at the 2008 Electronic Literature Organization and Electronic Literature in Europe conferences and published by Counterpath Press.

He is the primary composer for the Chicago-based contemporary dance ensemble The Moving Architects, with whom he performs live.

As of 2009, he is a graduate student in Literary Arts at Brown University.

Signal to Noise, Opening Sources

All my work in elecronic writing has been created for (and often in response to) the architecture of the web. My primary interest for some time now has been the development of adaptive multi-reader texts -- works which track multiple simultaneous readings and navigations and use this data to influence and evolve content in realtime. No authoring software yet exists with this kind of functionality, at least not for my purposes, so I've been writing the engines myself using a combination of programming languages and libraries. The method I'm using to continuously pass data between a reader's browser and my PHP code is AJAX, which is remarkably easy to learn and implement if you go through a Javascript library such as JQuery, Mootools or Prototype. Anyone interested in authoring web-based work (AJAX aside) should definitely spend some time experimenting with these libraries, which provide excellent sets of tools to make Javascript far easier and more intuitive to write. As a bonus, they let you safely ignore a lot of the pitfalls of making one's code compatible with Internet Explorer.

I like HTML, Javascript, and PHP because they are all free and, in the first two cases, produce inherently open-source work. You can go to almost any page with Javascript, view the source, find the linked .js file, and check out exactly how it operates. There is a certain nifty elegance to this kind of transparency.

Some software I've found useful:

Aptana, a free and open-source development suite.

MAMP/LAMP/WAMP, free virtual server software. Indispensable when coding in PHP.

JQuery and Prototype, my two favorite Javascript libraries. Also free.

TextMate , unfortunately not free, but the best text editor available for OSX.

Chris Joseph
Inanimate Alice by Kate Pullinger and Chris Joseph
___ http://www.chrisjoseph.org/
Photoshop, Premiere, Sound Forge, Acid, Flash

Digital writer Chris Joseph, aka babel, creates electronic literature, multimedia, and interactive art.

His work has been exhibited internationally, including among many others, the 2008 Biennale of Sydney; Visionary Landscapes, Electronic Literature Organization Conference 2008; Digital Media Valencia 2008; Boston Cyberarts, E-Poetry, and SIGGRAPH.

His current work includes Flight Paths, a "networked novel" funded by the Arts Council England; Inanimate Alice, a series of interactive multimedia stories; and remixworx, a collaborative digital remixing community.

From September 2006 until September 2008, he was the first Digital Writer in Residence at the Institute of Creative Technologies in De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.

Chris Joseph is editor of the post-dada magazine and network 391.org.

Inanimate Alice

Inanimate Alice is a series of multimedia short stories depicting the life of a girl growing up in the early years of the 21st century. Across ten episodes, the story of Alice, games animator, and her one true friend in life, Brad, the game character she has created, is told using a combination of text, sound, and images. "Episode 1: China" begins with Alice aged eight and subsequent episodes track her through adulthood until her mid-twenties. Each episode becomes increasingly interactive and more game-like, reflecting Alice's own developing skills as a game designer and animator.

Inanimate Alice represents a project that could not have been created or distributed without the software developments of the past decade. The series uses manipulated photographic images, illustrations, video, sound, and text to tell the story. These elements were created using a PC and various softwares: Photoshop (graphics), Premiere (video), Sound Forge and Acid (sound effects and music).

Finally Flash is used to combine these elements and create the final work. Flash offers a method for creative artists to produce high-quality multimedia at a relatively low cost, and even more importantly, it allows a cost-effective and simple method for distributing the piece to a worldwide audience.

More specifically, Flash was chosen for the following reasons:

1. It has a very wide user base, so represents a great way to distribute work online without putting off those users who are unfamiliar with installing software plugins;

2. It allows the relatively simple creation of randomized, non-linear and interactive elements. For example, in each episode there are elements that are generated at random from a set of pre-defined possibilities (such as Ming's paintings, and the motion of the texts) -- possibilities that can be explored with this kind of digital animation, as opposed to a linear (filmed) animation;

3. It offers an extremely wide range of animation styles. Movement between scenes in Inanimate Alice is generally very dynamic, employing slides, pans and zooms to suggest an animated graphic novel, in a style that blends comic, animation and film. But techniques and elements of classical animation can also be found throughout, for example Alice's hand-drawn animations of Brad, or the looping desert backgrounds in Episode 1 that are reminiscent of early Disney cartoons. All these styles can be easily explored within the Flash authoring environment.

Rob Kendall
Flash; XML, X-Lit

Born and raised in Canada and currently living in Menlo Park, California, Robert Kendall is an e-poetry pioneer, who has been creating interactive multimedia poetry since 1990.

His book-length hypertext poem, A Life Set for Two, was published by Eastgate Systems in 1996, and his hypertext poetry has also been published and exhibited Internationally including The Little Magazine; Iowa Review Web; BBC Online; Cauldron & Net; Dodge Poetry Festival; the Second Annual Poetry Video Festival, Chicago; Manhattan Cable TV; and the Painted Bride Art Center, Philadelphia.

Kendall's printed poetry has appeared in Rattapallax, Contact II, River Styx, New York Quarterly, Barrow Street, and Indiana Review. His print work, A Wandering City, (Cleveland State University Poetry Center) won the CSU Poetry Center Prize.

He is co-developer of Connection Muse, an adaptive hypertext authoring system for Web poetry and fiction, and his articles and essays about computer technology and computers in the arts have been widely published including in PC Magazine, PC Computing, Poets & Writers Magazine, Leonardo, Electronic Book Review, Cortland Review, Kairos, and Purdue University Press.

Robert Kendall is the host of the website Word Circuits

Since 1995, he has taught hypertext poetry and fiction through the online program of the New School University in New York.


I created this work in Flash. It makes use of drag-and-drop functions and transitional fades that very few other delivery systems can create. The method I use for text-handling is not the one normally employed by Flash authors. All the text is stored in an XML file, which is read by the work's SWF file at runtime. This means that I can edit or expand the text of this work freely without having to recompile the SWF file. I can also easily organize it into paths and sections/lexias. It's very difficult to work with large quantities of text in Flash, unless you put the text into external XML files in this manner.

Pieces is the first step in a large-scale project from which I hope will eventually emerge an X-Literature XML specification--an XML format that will allow me and other authors to create complex Flash works solely by creating content in XML that will be rendered by a Flash-based X-Lit Player. I will be working in conjunction with the ELO to work out the details of the X-Lit spec itself. In conjunction with developing a preliminary version of the spec, I am also building an authoring tool in AIR (a new programming IDE recently released by Adobe) that will let people create Flash works without having to use or even own Flash. My XML format currently handles only text, but ultimately it will also handle graphics, video, and audio, and will store elements defining animation, interaction, styles, and interface elements. Preliminary details about the project, which is in its very early stages, are available at http://www.wordcircuits.com/xlit

Prior to working in Flash, I used the Connection Muse to help create most of my Web work. This is a JavaScript-based authoring system for adaptive hypertext, which I codeveloped with the French computer scientist, Jean-Hugues Réty ( http://wordcircuits.com/connect). This system allows the components of a hypertext to respond dynamically to a reader's progress through the work, changing links and content to suit the current reading situation. Many of the features of Connection Muse have already been incorporated into my XML format, and I hope eventually to port all the system's features to the X-Lit authoring system.

When the X-Lit spec, player, and authoring tool are fully developed they will allow an author to store in a single XML file all the text and pointers to external media content for complex hypertexts, interactive pieces, and animated works. Features not supported by X-Lit can still be implemented directly in Flash, so an author won't lose any functionality by using the system, even if it doesn't directly support all desired functions. I'm excited by the prospects of this system and its new approach, and I hope it will someday see wide use.

Donna Leishman
Software: Flash, Sound Forge

Donna Leishman's work is a combination of critical writing and practice-led research in digital art with a particular interest in the intersection of narrative with Internet based interactivity. Her practice has been exhibited internationally both in art and design contexts. Themes in the research include the aesthetics of dissonance, visual digital literature and the psychology of literary characterization.

Donna Leishman is currently an academic specializing in digital media design at Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art in the University of Dundee, Scotland. She was an Emmy award nominee for her work on The Rosie O'Donnell Show, and her responsive animations have been showcased in The New York Times and The Guardian Online, as well as exhibited at The Lighthouse, Glasgow, Scotland; Alt-w: New Directions in Scottish Digital Culture; Studio Zeta, Milan; the Boston Cyberarts Festival; the DeCordova Museum; Technopoetry Festival, Georgia Tech; UKinNY Festival, Parsons School of Design, New York; and Visionary Landscapes, Electronic Literature Organization Conference, Vancouver, WA.

With background as a visual artist and web designer, she has created a series of visually-rich narratives and fairytales that combine elements of magic realism and pop culture with animation and interactivity. In her statement for Authoring Software, she talks about the creation of her classic (launched in 2000) animated and interactive version of "Little Red Riding Hood", and in particular about her use of Flash.

"All works are seeded and born within traditional sketchbooks, so I draw everything first but they grow and become real within the Flash environment," she observes.

More information about Donna Leishman's work can be found on her website at http://www.6amhoover.com

Donna Leishman: RedRidingHood

The interface, interactivity and animation within RedRidingHood, like subsequent projects: The Bloody Chamber, Deviant: The Possession Of Christian Shaw and Contemplating Flight, was entirely produced using Abobe Flash. Simple sound editing software such as Soundforge or Audacity was used to create and or edit the sound content. Given my background as a visual artist and web designer the quality of the graphics were of key importance, Flash offered (and still offers) a robust yet simple drawing toolbox -- a small sister to professional vector art packages such as Illustrator and Freehand. In 2000, it was important to consider the streaming and filesize of the animation (Broadband wasn't a common luxury), so Flash allowed bigger bang for your buck in terms of both graphic and animation/movement complexity given its excellent streaming compression. I had previously written about the problematic aesthetics of early Elit works which tended to be of poor visual / typographic quality, I argued that the audience scope was thus limited and rarefied and unlikely to reach broader public audiences.

I still work entirely within vectors rather than bitmaps, vector animation rather than video or film. My PhD thesis touched upon the value or interest in establishing a sense of digital crafting or the *fragital* -- a hybrid of detailed line art and a sense of handcrafting, a holographic touch from the author yet within digital media. All works are seeded and born within traditional sketchbooks, so I draw everything first but they grow and become real within the Flash environment.

Flash also allowed me to program and develop actionscript generated random sequences (within the Dream Sequence in RedRidingHood) and manage the non-linear narrative structuring. The Flash Player is also very pervasive and has penetrated the majority of web users. Sound editing and syncing sound to action and motion remains a fascinating process and one that, time permitting, I would like to develop so the total media crafting, image, movement, interaction and audio is completely complimentary.

Poetic Game Interventions [V.1] [from the Twittermixed Litterature Series]
Twitter and World of Warcraft

Australian-based net.artist, Mez Breeze has been creating of Internet-based code poetry and poetic game interventions for fifteen years.

Her work has been exhibited widely, including ISEA; ARS Electronica; The Metropolitan Museum Tokyo; SIGGRAPH; The Brooklyn Academy of Music; New Media Scotland; Laguna Art Museum; Alternator Gallery, Canada; HTTP Gallery, London; and Postmaster Gallery, New York.

She was JavaArtist of the Year 2001 and in 2002, she was the winner of the Newcastle Digital Poetry Prize.

Poetic Game Interventions [V.1]

I began my MMOG interventions in the 90's using the _Everquest_ game interface 2 project/interject in2 the conventional game-chat stream by riffing off other players chatlines and reworking chat sections via poetic manipulations. I'd also mangle logs of these chats and project them into a wider networked sphere by reposting them to various email list forums.

I'm currently extending this type of poetic intervention/textual reworking of game_text during my time playing World of Warcraft. My latest intervention is titled "Twittermixed Litterature" and involves WoW characters ["toons"] on the Bloodscalp Server standing in Ironforge [an in-game location] + live remixing [in_game] chat that occurs between players and guild/character names that rotate past. I then remash these lines [+ any feedback I receive in-game from the players themselves] into a live Twitter stream, making a multi-access channelling or [as I labelled it in the press releases]: "Twittermixing prefound identity marker texts from live-time character actions in World of Warcraft" and "MMO Voyeur Aggregationistic Rem(H)ashing."

Ethan Miller
Narrative Units -- http://ethanmiller.name/projects/narrativeunits/:
Code based, networked data visualization

Software tools used: Written in the Python programming language,
and depends on the Python libraries PyGame (for rendering graphics)
and BeautifulSoup (for reading HTML).

Narrative Units

Interface/authoring tools are an interesting question to me... For the last three years or so I've worked almost exclusively within a command-line interface. My code editor is Vim. Like many CLI users, I find it efficient and simple - it allows me to think through the keyboard without a lot of hunting and clicking with the mouse to interfere.

From the perspective of media practice, I see the interfaces I use while working as very much a part of the work. Here is a screenshot of Narrative Units: http://ethanmiller.name/media/images/uploaded/narrunits_.png which may explain more visually than I can articulate verbally. I think the relationship, on the one hand, may have to do with the parameters/biases imposed by software: Programming languages and plain-text/code editors offer relatively more freedom of movement than 'wizards' and options panels (more possibilities for errors isn't a bad thing either).

Beyond that though I think a plain text interface in the context of a visual/auditory/networked practice speaks to the soft borders between those forms and the codes that run through them. The relationship, say between code that creates an image, the image file, and how it's represented on a screen, is complex and fascinating. The transformations all happen through 'languages' which are comfortably represented in plain text. I guess, for me, keeping my working interface within the confines of plain text, while creating visual/auditory work, keeps me situated within that "boundary" area that I find so interesting.

Nick Montfort -- http://nickm.com
Lost One: Curveship, Python

New media writer and scholar Nick Montfort is the author of the MIT Press books Twisty Little Passages: An Approach to Interactive Fiction (2003) and Racing the Beam: The Atari Video Computer System (2009, with Ian Bogost) and co-editor of The New Media Reader. (2003, with Noah Wardrip-Fruin) He founded and blogged at Grand Text Auto, a group blog about computer narrative, games, poetry, and art, and now blogs about interactive narrative, poetic digital writing, and new media history at Post Position.

Montfort is a leading writer and programmer, whose interactive fiction authoring system, Curveship, was released in 2011. His work includes The Purpling; (published in The Iowa Review Web) Ten Mobile Texts; ("five stories, an aubade, an epic, a sestina, a lipogram, and a ballad for Short Message Service", published in The New River) and Fields of Dream. (with Rachel Stevens, published in Poems that Go) Additionally, his work has been exhibited at or published in FILE, Sao Paulo, Brazil; bleuOrange, Montréal, Canada; the Carmen Conde Centenary, Spain; Cauldron & Net; the Krannert Art Museum, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; the Beall Center for Art + Technology, U.C. Irvine and the Digital Arts and Culture Conference.

An Associate Professor of Digital Media in the Program in Writing and Humanistic Studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Nick Montfort currently serves as the President of the Electronic Literature Organization.

Lost One

An interesting recent piece for me to mention is Lost One, which has not been released but was first publicly read at the Open Mic & Mouse, The Future of Electronic Literature Symposium, (sponsored by the Electronic Literature Organization and Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities) University of Maryland, May 2, 2007.

This piece was written to demonstrate my interactive fiction system Curveship, (formerly called nn) which is also unreleased. I began work on this system as part of my dissertation work at the University of Pennsylvania. Curveship is written in Python. It is is currently a research system -- good enough to prove some points that I have been trying to prove. I am finishing a more stable and comprehensible version of the system and working on some longer-form interactive fiction in the system. I hope to release Curveship around the end of this summer. (2009)

I'm particularly interested in writing e-lit in programming languages that are capable of general computation. Curveship falls into this category, while also providing specific facilities for varying the narration of a story independent of what the underlying events are. I'm also currently working on a series of very small Perl poetry generators and on some story generators in Perl. I have also written electronic literature in Inform 6, Processing, HTML, Java, the Windows 95 help system, and plain text.

Stuart Moulthrop
Recent Projects

One of the first creators of new media literature and a distinguished new media writer, digital artist, and scholar, Baltimore, Maryland native Stuart Moulthrop is the author of the seminal hyperfiction Victory Garden, (Eastgate, 1992), a work that Robert Coover included in the "golden age" of electronic literature.

His works -- that include Hegirascope, (1995) Reagan Library, (1999) Pax, (2003) Under Language, (2007) and Deep Surface (2007) -- have been exhibited and or published by Eastgate, The Iowa Web Review, the ELO Electronic Literature Collection; New River; Media Ecology; The New Media Reader; Washington State University Vancouver; and the Digital Arts and Culture Conference. Two of his works have won prizes in the Ciutat de Vinaros international competition.

Stuart Moulthrop is a Professor in the School of Information Arts and Technologies at the University of Baltimore where he is the Director of the undergraduate Simulation and Digital Entertainment program.

He has served as co-editor for Postmodern Culture, was co-founder of the TINAC electronic arts collective, and was a founding director of the Electronic Literature Organization.

Under Language and Deep Surface

Since the turn of the century, I've been working exclusively in Flash, with an increasing emphasis on code-intensive, object-oriented projects.

Also important are various tools for generating 3-D images and animations, including 3DStudio Max and Poser, tools for converting text to artificial speech, such as TextAloud, and the sound library at Freesound.org

My most recent projects are:

"Deep Surface" http://www.hermeneia.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1871&Itemid=654

"Under Language" http://iat.ubalt.edu/moulthrop/hypertexts/ul/

My headlong dive into ever more elaborate code structures has brought my work closer to the thermocline between e-lit and computer games. Both the most recent pieces have explicit game features, such as end-of-play conditions (game over), and scoring systems. You can probably tell that I spend much time in my day job (which, oddly enough, happens mainly at night) teaching aspiring game designers how to think with code.

Withal, I remain a compulsively verbal artist, and can't shake the type off my boot blocks, even as I seem compelled to invent "new disorders" of writing (as I recently heard John Cayley quote Derrida).

Flash remains a convenient choice for many things -- though it bears noting that ActionScript 3 demands significantly more patience and attention than its precursors, and turns casual scripting into something much more like industrial-strength programming. Adobe seem to assume that graphic designers and application developers will be happier if their tools clearly delineate their job functions (i.e., the designers are discouraged from touching code). I think that's a terrible development for ARTISTS.

In the future, I'd like to build with materials that aren't Adobe -- using things like Processing, especially the excellent RiTa system from Daniel Howe at Brown, or a fascinating utility called Dasher, which is a gestural substitute for keyboard input. Also on my do-list are Inform, the venerable authoring system for traditional interactive fiction, and of course, HTML-JavaScript, where I still have deep roots.

Alexander Mouton
Flash, HTML, Java Script, Photoshop, Final Cut, Logic, QuickTime

Working with photography, video, bookmaking, sequenced images, and sound, Alexander Mouton creates artists books and electronic works online and in performance and installation situations.

Produced by Unseen Press, his artists books are in collections Internationally including the Museum of Modern Art in New York City and the Kunst Bibliothek in Berlin, Germany

He is Assistant Professor of Digital Art & Design at Seattle University in Washington, where he also teaches artists' book structures.


As a visual and sound artist working also within the form of the artists' book, I understand net art as a virtual extension of a much older physical tradition of self-published artists' books. I began working with narrative/poetic artists' books in the early 90's and began experimenting with Director in 2001 as I was able to incorporate motion and sound into the mix. I moved thereafter to the Flash programming environment because it affords a better possibility for compressing video, still images, and sounds to sufficiently small sizes for web publishing without sacrificing the aesthetic integrity of the media.

I work with Final Cut and Quicktime Pro for video editing, Adobe Photoshop for image editing, and Logic and Audacity for sound editing. Currently, I combine the raw materials from these programs using Flash, and with javaScript and actionScript I can customize the users viewing environment, incorporate interactivity, and program randomization features to break from traditional linear narrativity

For the piece Velvet specifically, my goal was to produce a highly interactive environment which was very personal in nature and which immerses a user inside the mind and identity of the artist for the exploration of states of mind, dreams, and memory. I was also interested in incorporating as many media as possible - text, still images, sounds, & video - and to do so using a diverse body of work from over the past 15 years of my active art-making. The interactivity plays a significant role, not only for navigation, but for the generation of meaning. Velvet was designed with a non-linear narrative in mind, with an overarching structure in place that allows for a degree of authorial direction amidst the user-determined sequencing.

Kate Pullinger
Flight Paths by Kate Pullinger and Chris Joseph
CommentPress, Netvibes

Born in British Columbia and based in London, Kate Pullinger writes for print, digital media, radio, and film. Her recent work includes the multimedia graphic novel Inanimate Alice and the networked narrative Flight Paths.

Her works of fiction have been published by Phoenix House, Bloomsbury, Cape/Picador, Five Star, and Serpent's Tail. She co-wrote the novel of the film The Piano with director Jane Campion, and from 2001-2007 she was a Royal Literary Fund Fellow. Her new novel, The Mistress of Nothing, is in press in the UK by Serpent's Tail and in Canada by McArthur & Co.

Kate Pullinger currently teaches on the MA in Creative Writing and New Media at De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.

Flight Paths

We've been working on Flight Paths for around five months now, and a lot of that time has been taken up trying to figure out how to make it work. Despite massive advances and changes on the web over the past few years, it still remains fairly complicated to create an open access site that can include multimedia.

The first version of Flight Paths went up in a WordPress blog, with the add-on of CommentPress, the widget created by the Institute of the Future of the Book that allows us to foreground comments on the right-hand side of the page, instead of buried beneath each post. While this seemed like a good idea at the time, this widget was actually created for people to comment on works that were already written; CommentPress works best when you've got a draft of a text that you want to allow people to comment on paragraph by paragraph. It doesn't work so well when the project, like Flight Paths, is being created afresh.

At the same time as working on the public face of the project, Chris and I have been busy in the background making links with other organisations, collecting submissions from interested people, creating our own submissions, visiting the supermarket in Richmond to make recordings and take photos and videos, interviewing the journalists behind the original project, etc etc.

After a few months, it began to become clear to us that the wordpress blog wasn't really the right venue for this project - a blog is a blog, even with the fab CommentPress widget - and what we are trying to do is not create a blog. Neither of us are natural-born bloggers, and this project isn't about writing a blog. Around this time, Netvibes, a homepage application that we had both been using, launched Netvibes Universes, and this seemed like the ideal platform to move 'Flight Paths' to - we'd always wanted to be able to curate the web for this project, to be able to collect things from all over the web, as well as collecting submissions. The Universe does in fact work well as a curatorial platform, although, inevitably, we've had mails from some of our contributors saying they can't get the Universe boxes to open.

However, quite apart from whether or not the Universe works across various browsers and operating systems, another issue for us is where to house the discussions that arise out of the submissions and from the various issues and themes behind the project. With the CommentPress widget the blog was almost okay for discussions, though we have never used the blog as a blog and have always manipulated the posts, using the Table of Contents the CommentPress widget created, trying to keep numbers of posts to a mininum in order to stop entries from being buried in the blog archive. This was quite labour intensive, and also counter-intuitive -- again, trying to make a blog resemble something that isn't a blog -- so recently we've decided that, for discussions, we should use a forum. We've put a forum up in the Flight Paths universe, and are currently pondering how best to organise it.

All of this has been slow and time-consuming; I've found I've needed ages to ponder it all and get my head round how best to make this project work online. Doubtless we will continue to tweak it as it grows.

Jim Rosenberg

Interactive poetry pioneer Jim Rosenberg has been working with with non-linear poetic forms since 1966, and his Diagrams Series 4 was published on the seminal Art Com Electronic Network on the WELL. His visually elegant, word-dense, spatial hypertexts -- including Intergrams and The Barrier Frames and Diffractions Through -- are published by Eastgate.

His work has also been performed, published and/or exhibited at The San Francisco Poetry Center; Intersection, San Francisco; Cody's, Berkeley; St. Mark's Church in the Bowery, New York; The Kitchen, New York; Harvard University sponsored by The Grolier Poetry Bookstore; Leonardo; E-Poetry; and the Electronic Literature Organizaton Conference.

Rosenberg is an influential hypertext and new media poetics critic and researcher, whose writing has been published in the ACM Hypertext Conferences and the Electronic Book Review, among others.

He lives in Pennsylvania with his wife, painter Mary Jean Kenton.

I have come to believe that authoring systems are the problem, not the solution; the short answer to what authoring system I use is: I don't. The authoring system should be smashed -- to smithereens. Let the smithereens loose. What I use is not an authoring system but an ecosystem for nurturing feral smithereens.

This means: the object of attention is (surprise): the object. Authoring is not something you "do" in an "authoring system" -- as opposed to some other habitat of the object as encountered by the reader; authoring is just something naturally there, as a normal function of what an object does. It is not something you turn "on" but something you might decide to turn "off". "Playing" is not something that you do in some separate jail called a "player" or something you do inside that prison otherwise known as "web browser window", it is something the object naturally does. In place. Feral. Loose on the desktop, perhaps. Or if it's in a specific place, a place that you made -- the place is itself an object. Everything is an object. Including zero.

In this environment there is no boundary between "playing" and "authoring". There are only objects that behave. Some behaviors modify the object, some don't. Some behaviors modify other behaviors, some don't. Some behaviors I had to code myself, most I didn't. The concern is not authoring, but doing: What does the word object do, what can you do to it, with it, for it (or even against it.)

An object space. An open object space. Generic enough that I don't have to write all the code, but open meaning I can write my own code and insert it into the space so there is no boundary.

So, of course there is "a system"; I'm not supporting my poetry in an environment I programmed 100% myself in machine language from bare metal -- no one would do that. The object system I use is called Squeak. You could argue, I suppose, that there is no real difference between Squeak and an authoring system, but most authoring systems are not so generic. The list of packages which have been produced in Squeak is quite broad, resembling a scaled-down list of packages available for a generic operating system. The Squeak "World" could easily serve as the main GUI desktop for an operating system, as Gnome or KDE does for Linux.

This is just a snapshot. For a more serious write-up, I still stand by "Questions about the Second Move", which appeared in Cybertext Yearbook 2002-2003, and for the technicalities, "Hypertext in the Open Air: A Systemless Approach to Spatial Hypertext", (pdf) from the Third Workshop on Spatial Hypertext at Hypertext '03.

Stephanie Strickland and Cynthia Lawson Jaramillo
Vniverse - http://vniverse.com/
slippingglimpse - http://slippingglimpse.org/
Director; Flash

Stephanie Strickland is the author of V, which was one of the first works of literature to appear simultaneously both in print, V: WaveSon.nets/Losing L'una, Penguin, 2002, and on the Web, V: Vniverse. Her cyberpoem True North was published in print by the University of Notre Dame Press and as a work of literature on disk by Eastgate. True North was awarded the Ernest Sandeen Poetry Prize, the Alice Fay di Castagnola Award from the Poetry Society of America, and the Salt Hill hypertext prize. V: WaveSon.nets/Losing L'una also received the Alice Fay di Castagnola Award.

Strickland's digital works include V: Vniverse, with Cynthia Lawson Jaramillo; Errand Upon Which We Came, with M.D. Coverley; Ballad of Sand and Harry Soot; and slippingglimpse, with Cynthia Lawson Jaramillo and Paul Ryan. Print scores for the Ballad and slippingglimpse appear in her book, Zone : Zero, which was published by Ahsahta in 2008. slippingglimpse was introduced at E-Poetry in Paris and featured at E-poetry in Barcelona. Her poetry has also been published/exhibited by The Paris Review, Grand Street, New American Writing, Fence, Black Clock, Zoland Poetry, Vlak, The Poetry Foundation, The Iowa Review Web, Cauldron & Net, Drunken Boat, Hyperrhiz: New Media Cultures, Word Circuits Gallery, Blue Moon, The New River, Furtherfield, and Poets for Living Waters.

Her essays about electronic literature appear in Leonardo Electronic Almanac, ebr, Isotope, and volumes from MIT Press and Intellect Press Ltd.

A member of the Board of Directors of the Electronic Literature Organization, she edited the first volume of the Electronic Literature Collection with Kate Hayles, Nick Montfort, and Scott Rettberg. She also co-edited an issue of The Iowa Review Web.

Stephanie Strickland has taught hypermedia literature as part of experimental poetry at many colleges and universities, most recently in the PhD poetry program at the University of Utah. She lives in New York City.

Cynthia Lawson Jaramillo is a New York City-based digital artist and educator, whose innovative work utilizes incremental streams of words and/or photographs to create new media art and literature.

Her work has been exhibited and/or performed at the Modern Museum of Art; (Bogota) Hammer Museum; (UCLA) Exit Art Gallery, NY; CalArts; Rhode Island School of Design; Net Art Columbia; E-Poetry; and the 2008 Electronic Literature Organization Conference, among others. She an active member of Madarts, an arts collective based in Brooklyn, NY.

Cynthia Lawson Jaramillo has taught art and design courses in Colombia, South America; New York; Guatemala; Dominican Republic; and Japan.

She is currently Assistant Professor of Integrated Design in the School of Design Strategies at Parsons The New School for Design in New York City.

Vniverse and slippingglimpse

1-Why did we use Director for Vniverse and Flash for slippingglimpse; or, what is the relationship of interface/content to the tools we used?

V: VNIVERSE: Our original thought was to use VRML, or to make an installation, to actually seem to move in a three-dimensional star space-to turn to look at different texts as you turn in space and trigger the stars. Perhaps, today, were we at Brown or someplace with a CAVE, it would be possible to work out such a piece for a CAVE.

But in fact in 2000, we used Macromedia Director because it was the most widely used multimedia authoring tool at the time, and it was what Cynthia was using in graduate school. The biggest problem was drawing the constellations, getting the lines/diagrams to be dynamically generated whenever anyone rolled over or clicked a star.

The biggest ongoing challenge is to make sure our projects are up-to-date and viewable as hardware and software changes at such a fast pace.

SLIPPINGGLIMPSE: The main reason for using Flash for slippingglimpse was so that we could dynamically animate and visually layer text on top of videos. Director can't do it. You can track motion and layer text on video in Processing, but Processing requires a Java applet on the viewer's machine that is not as widely adopted as the Flash player, and we wanted the project as accessible online as possible.

As well, Cynthia was interested in learning Flash. However we wished to do things that Flash barely supports, certainly not Flash 7. Fortunately Flash 8 came out just in time to do our project. There is a new bitmap API in version 8 that facilitated the motion capture script. We continued to have problems with how many pieces of text we can use at once. Doing multiple things at once and drawing them is something Flash 8 is still pretty clunky at. Therefore we had to break down the poem text and select something like 10 to 15 phrases ranging in length from 1 to 7 words to be dynamically chosen and drawn in the full-screen (water as reader) mode of the piece.

2-How has our use expanded new media practice?

V: VNIVERSE: To our knowledge it hasn't, but we believe the Vniverse interface is capable of being generalized. At a reading at U. California Santa Barbara, an audience member felt it was a widely usable data visualization. It combines diagrammatic structures with text in a pleasing way.

We feel the most interesting aspect of the programming is that the whole program happens in one frame, and therefore time is generated via coding and not a timeline. Sticking to one frame allowed us to dynamically generate the animations of text and of constellations, as opposing to predetermining and then animating them. We wanted to create a space that would allow infinite possibilities for interaction and not one where we had to predict how users would interact.

SLIPPINGGLIMPSE: We haven't seen any other video-based Flash pieces with dynamic layering of text elements. We have seen motion capture programming in performance and installation work, but not much online and rarely with text.

3-What is the relationship between the print work and e-work; or, what is the relationship of interface and content?

SLIPPINGGLIMPSE: There is an ecologic-philosophic practice of threeing (described in Paul Ryan's book, Video Mind, Earth Mind) that is related to the three-mode structure of slippingglimpse. In this digital poem, we aim to give equal weight to two kinds of language: to weight natural languages and human readers equally with non-human languages-and non-human readers. The computer is, of course, a non-human reader; but, in this piece, so is the water-and the water, as well, is a non-human text, a text affected by gravity, by chaotic attractors and catastrophic changes in state, patterning itself, resolving its interior motions into forms that continuously renew. These forms are called chreods.

In slippingglimpse, water (in the 10 ocean videos) is the first reader. We track the water reading by using motion capture coding that assigns the text to locations of movement in the water. The metaphor is that the water's motions provide a scanning, as our eyes scan text. This aspect is best read in the full-screen mode.

In turn, in the scroll-text mode, the poem-text tracks, or reads, image/capture technologies by sampling and recombining the words of visual artists who use digital techniques. It combines their words with Strickland's own-and with words from an old folktale, The Passion of the Flax, which explores the very oldest capture technologies, such as harvesting plants for food and flax for paper.

Completing this "round-robin" of reading, image-capture videography-and-video-editing read the water's flow pattern, reading for and enhancing these patterns to which dynamical systems return even as they continuously change. The high-resolution mode shows the chreod patterns best.

With respect to V: Vniverse and True North, versions of question 3 were posed in Jaishree K. Odin's Iowa Review Online interview http://www.uiowa.edu/~iareview/tirweb/feature/strickland/stricklandinterview.pdf

Sue Thomas
Hello World: travels in virtuality
Print book: http://www.rawnervebooks.co.uk/helloworld.html
Free download: http://www.rawnervebooks.co.uk/helloworlddownload.html
Blog/webview: http://travelsinvirtuality.typepad.com/helloworld/
LamdaMoo: telnet://lambda.moo.mud.org:8888 type 'co guest' to connect

Born and based in England, writer/new media writer Sue Thomas
founded the seminal trAce Online Writing Centre in 1995. Her online
writing projects include the The Noon Quilt, a collaboratively-created
new media "quilt" of art and writing and the online forum Writing and the
Digital Life
that explores digital technologies, writing, and lived

Published by Raw Nerve Books, Overlook, The Women's Press and Five
Leaves, among others, her print works include the cyberspace travelogue
Hello World: travels in virtuality; Correspondence; (short-listed
for the Arthur C. Clarke Award for Best Science Fiction Novel) Water;
and Wild Women: Contemporary Short Stories By Women Celebrating Women.
She is currently writing The Wild Surmise, about relationships between
cyberspace and the natural world.

Sue Thomas is Professor of New Media in the Institute of Creative
Technologies and the Faculty of Humanities at De Montfort University.

Hello World: travels in virtuality

I fell into LambdaMOO in 1995 and knew immediately that it would change
my creative life for ever. Until then I had written text, but at Lambda
I could actually live in it, be made of it, and travel along it. I had no
idea what would happen as I began to learn how to be an artist of the MOO,
but I hung out in The Living Room ( @go #17 ) making a nuisance of myself
with Francesca da Rimini (Gashgirl) and other members of the Australian
feminist performance group VNS Matrix, and experimented with virtual presence
at a number of online events which exhorted participants to be ready to sit
by their computers for hours at a time ("Bring sandwiches" said an invitation
email) and playing around with our identities until everyone's heads were
spinning. I was writing all the time, but it wasn't a book, it was a life.
Entire days were spent typing, and I often turned on a capture file to log
every interaction, every conversation, every line of code. I built rooms,
emotions, and people. I morphed from one persona to another and swam around
in a mess of ego, mine and others, learning not just who I really was but
also who I really might be.

I wanted to write about LambdaMOO but I didn't know how. For several years
I tried to write a novel set there, but it was banal and embarrassing,
demanding enormous footnotes explaining to the reader exactly how it
really is possible to sit in a virtual hot-tub ( @go #388 ), have virtual
sex, or communicate telepathically. In the end I gave up - indeed, I gave
up writing altogether in despair at what seemed to be the limitations of
words. But it was only temporary. About a year later I had a revelation
when I realised there was no need to wrap the whole experience up into
fiction. What I needed to do was write about it as nonfiction. After all,
it was indeed very real, not just to me but to hundreds of others who
spent part of every day in text-based virtuality. Those imaginative
people at Raw Nerve Books picked it up and were enthusiastic about
providing a webview as well where I could add on all those extra
elements that only come to you after a book has gone to print, and
so in 2004, nine years after my first visit to LambdaMOO, Hello World:
travels in virtuality
was published in hard copy and I, at last,
felt I had got to grips with my virtual life and could finally relax.

@go #388
The Hot Tub
The hot tub is made of molded fiberglass: on three sides a bench will
seat five comfortably (and ten who are friendly), and on the fourth
side there is contoured couch for one luxurious soak. There are two
rubber mounted buttons here. You may push either the right or left
button. The rising sun puts a rosy glow on everything. The
underwater light is on. The bubbling jets are on.
You see thermometer and Hot Tub Bar here.
Aaaahhhh! The water is at that perfect
temperature where you can just lie in here forever.

Hello World: travels in virtuality is made with object oriented
programming via the LambdaMOO Core; lots of post-its and small notebooks;
manuscripts created with A4 paper and inscribed by nice black pens
(medium tip) then typed up in Microsoft Word; ink, print and paper via
Raw Nerve Books; PDF downloads; Typepad blogging software, and the user's

I am now working on The Wild Surmise, a study of nature and
cyberspace which aims to bring the virtual and the material even closer
together -- http://www.thewildsurmise.com

Eugenio Tisselli

Born in Mexico City, Eugenio Tisselli is a writer and programmer, whose work includes artists software, social technologies, and digital narratives. His installations, performances, software and text works have been featured in publications, festivals and exhibitions around the world, and he collaborates regularly with artist Antoni Abad at the mobile phone networking site http://megafone.net

Since 1999, when he wrote the first version of his MIDIPoet software, he has created a series of visual poetry performance works composed with sound, projected words, and visual images. Sometimes starting with a few words and building -- in conjunction with sound -- to the incluusion of graphic images, photographs, and arranged words; sometimes combining still phrases with moving words and performer actions, his work highlights the relationship of letters to words and groups of words, as well as the relationship of the performer to the words in ways that are important to an exploration of reading/viewing text in the development of new media literature.

Tisselli has been an associate researcher at Sony Computer Science Lab in Paris. He currently teaches at and is co-director of the Master in Digital Arts at the Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona.

For his contribution to Authoring Software, he writes about the creation and uses of MIDIPoet software.

More information about Eugenio Tisselli's work can be found at http://www.motorhueso.net


Back in 1999, when I wrote the first version of MIDIPoet, software for the real-time manipulation of texts and images via MIDI was either expensive or very difficult to use. (and in some cases, both) So, my aim was to develop a software tool that would be powerful, easy to use, and that would allow me (and others) to compose and perform interactive pieces of visual poetry.

In its current version, (which was released in 2002) MIDIPoet consists of two applications: MIDIPoet Composer and MIDIPoet Player. As their names suggest, Composer contains a set of tools for creating MIDIPoet pieces, and Player performs them. The MIDIPoet environment has its own programming language, made up from relatively complex text commands. In order to make things easier, (and allow other people to approach the tool with realtively little pain) MIDIPoet Composer offers a visual way of creating MIDIPoet pieces, so there is no need to write code. MIDIPoet itself was written in a combination of C++ and Visual Basic, and only runs under Windows. It is available for free download at http://motorhueso.net/midipeng/index.htm

MIDIPoet has been used in different contexts: digital poetry performances, interactive installations and even VJ sessions. Of course, it offers very limited possibilities when compared to other current electronic literature authoring software; yet I find that MIDIPoet is interesting precisely because of its limitations. I believe that every tool potentially pre-determines the results of its usage, imprinting its recognizable marks onto the pieces created with it. I also find that there are very few tools oriented towards performative electronic literature. The fact that MIDIPoet can be controlled either by the computer's keyboard or almost any MIDI instrument makes it a very adequate tool for live presentations.

MIDIPoet performances

Here are some of my videos of my MIDIPoet performances:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NhGHN3pnvps (Barcelona, 2008)

http://vimeo.com/8278370 (E-Poetry, Barcelona, 2009)

And finally, a poetry performance / concert by Christopher Funkhouser using MIDIPoet: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t9PkkqOzCf4 (ELO-AI, Brown University, 2010)

Noah Wardrip-Fruin
Screen: Cave Writing;
Role Playing Games

Newmedia writer and scholar Noah Wardrip-Fruin is a co-creator of Screen, a virtual reality narrative on the walls of a room-sized space. "Memory texts appear on the Cave's walls, surrounding the reader. Then words begin to come loose. The reader finds she can knock them back with her hand, and the experience becomes a kind of play - as well-known game mechanics are given new form through bodily interaction with text." he writes to describe this work in Screen (2002-present).

The author of four MIT Press books, including The New Media Reader; (2003 with Nick Montfort) and Third Person: Authoring and Exploring Vast Narratives; (2009, with Pat Harrigan) he is also a co-host of Grand Text Auto, a group blog about computer narrative, games, poetry, and art.

His work has been exhiited and/or publshed by the Guggenheim Museum; Sandra Gering Gallery; SIGGRAPH; Whitney Artport; Hypertext 2004; Boston Cyberarts Festival; Beall Center for Art + Technology, UC Irvine; Leonardo; and the Iowa Review Web among others.

Noah Wardrip-Fruin is Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science at the University of California, Santa Cruz.


Probably my most interesting work, from this perspective, is Screen.

When we were moving the Brown Cave from the SGI/Irix machines to IBM/Linux machines, we knew we had to do major work to translate the piece. So we decided to start over from scratch, creating an approach to literary work in the Cave that became the basis for the Cave Writing software project that continues today.

Here's a SIGGRAPH sketch on the initial work: http://www.noahwf.com/texts/nwf-caveWriting.pdf

Here's the website with some information on the current effort: https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/display/wdm/cave+writing+resources

And, in terms of my writing, you might be interested in these sections from my forthcoming book that talk about the platforms used for story/game RPGs and how they shape the experience: http://grandtextauto.org/2008/02/05/ep-32-role-playing-games/


Finally, yes, the Software Studies initiative is quite connected to these questions. We're hoping to have a meeting next year to discuss the platforms/software used by elit authors. I'm really looking forward to hearing more of what you find.

Joel Weishaus
The Way North: Dreamweaver; Photoshop
Mirror site: http://www.cddc.vt.edu/host/weishaus/North/Intro.htm

Born in New York City, writer, critic, digital artist Joel Weishaus has lived and worked in the West -- the San Francisco Bay Area, Taos, Albuquerque -- for many years. He now makes his home in Portland, Oregon.

His writing and digital literary art have been exhibited and/or published by City Lights Books; North Atlantic Books; Albuquerque Museum; Stanford University Museum of Art; Adleburg Poetry Festival, Adleburg, England; Electronic Language International Festival, San Paulo, Brazil; and The 2008 Electronic Literature Organization Conference; among others.

Joel Weishaus has been a photography critic for Artspace: A Magazine of Contemporary Southwest Art, and an Adjunct Curator (Video Art) at the University of New Mexico Art Museum.

He is presently writing and distributing an online journal, The Gateless Gate, which is "a walk for the sake of walking about the rugged trails of existence-non-existence, switchbacking the sacred and profane."

The Way North

Dreamweaver is the central program I use for digital projects, an apt name for work that goes a-dreaming, and everything seems to end up there. I also use an old version of Photoshop, mainly for sizing photographs, and an array of smaller programs. It's not the technology that interests me, and certainly not the interrogation of code, but how language finds itself somewhere else, and sheds its limitations.

The Way North was originally titled "The Idea of North," as homage to an old CBC radio broadcast by a genius named Glenn Gould. I chose "The Way" over "The Idea" to indicate movement that's not only in the head, but kinesthetic too, actual walking.

The project's theme is climate change, the importance of which I suggest visual artists and poets haven't touched yet in any meaningful way. Focused on the folkways of the Inuit People, whose culture has been the hardest hit, their experience is one indicator of the future distress this planet is facing. A northerner by temperament, who exiled himself in a southwestern desert for 23 years, The Way North is also a celebration of finding my way home.

I call the genre of my digital work, Digital Literary Art, which is the dream of combining text and image begun during the Upper Paleolithic on cave walls and itinerant rocks, and realized here primarily with text: how to write it across and down a monitor; how to work it into a larger vision of itself. There are also photographs, some sound, and animations, with text boxes triggered by hidden links. In fact, all the links are hidden, my request being that the reader caress the page to see what opens up.

I am a first-generation digital literary artist. Having grown up in front of a typewriter, I was dragged to the computer, where I now comfortably live. For now at least, what holds the two paradigms together is the keyboard, whose basic layout remains the same. Like the land bridge that once spanned the Bering Strait, we have something solid over which fingers walk and minds leap, so far.

Nanette Wylde
The Qi Project, 2008
Flash, Final Cut, Perl, CGI

Born in California, Nanette Wylde lives in Redwood City and Chico, California. Her language-centered work includes artists books, interactive net art, and audio-visual textual narrative.

Her work has been exhibited widely including Computers and Writing 2009, UC Davis; Olive Hyde Art Gallery, Fremont, CA; Purdue University; Los Angeles Center for Digital Art; The Portland Art Center; The Krause Center for Innovation Art Gallery; Euphrat Museum, Cupertino; The Lab, San Francisco; Rhonda Schaller Studio, New York; Telemar Cultural Center, Rio de Janeiro; Merced College Art Gallery; Works, San Jose; University of British Columbia, Canada; Diablo Valley College, Pleasant Hill; International Meeting of Experimental, Sound and Visual Poetry, Buenos Aires, Argentina; and SIGGRAPH.

Nanette Wylde is an Associate Professor, California State University, Chico, Department of Art and Art History.

The Qi Project

When I began working with interactive technologies in 1994 my software of choice was Director. Changes in both the software and OS X have made Director less workable for me. Some of my early projects created in Director became inoperable in OS X or technical changes were too big to remake them and maintain the original aesthetic of the project. This has made me a bit wary of overly specialized and system dependent software. Currently for interactive projects I primarily use Flash. I respond to its flexibility and stability (for now).

However, the technology I use is very dependent on the needs of the project. I still find myself working in web-based programming languages: HTML, Perl CGI scripts, and JavaScript. Although I am using Director to revive some of my earlier OS9 projects, I haven't begun a new project in Director for at least five years.

About The Qi Project

The Qi Project is an inquiry into the nature of humanity and what it means to be human at this moment in time. Qi is a Chinese word which literally means 'air' or 'breath.' It is considered to be the circulating life force. The Qi Project exists as (1) a gallery installation (2) a website (3) a process-based intervention. The gallery installation includes: two channel video, text and audience participation. The website: represents the interventions; includes elements in exhibition; and invites participation. The intervention is the process and residue of questioning: What does it mean to be human? What is humanity? This was done via postcards, email, telephone, website, and in front of a camcorder. The Project was launched at The Krause Center for Innovation Art Gallery in Los Altos Hills, California in February 2008. Continuing is the companion website.

About the Authoring Software Website

Authoring Software is a collection of information about new media authoring tools, statements by authors and software creators; and information about conferences, books, and programs organized by and for the electronic literature community. Authoring Software is a website-based learning environment for: teachers and students of new media writing who want to explore various authoring environments; new media writers and poets, who are interested in how their peers approach their work; and readers, who want to understand how new media writers and poets create their work.

The project currently contains documentation of work by new media writers, text artists, and story-tellers from all over the World, including New York, Chicago, Colorado, California, Oregon, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Washington State, Maryland, rural Ohio, rural Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Canada, Australia, England, Ireland, Spain, and Switzerland. From many countries, from rural and small town areas, as well as from urban and suburban areas, the many new media writers who are represented in this project are an indication of the importance of this field in fostering digital media and learning throughout the world.

Featured software includes commercial applications such as Flash and Dreamweaver; applications created for the hypertext and educational community such as Storyspace and Literatronica; and artist-developed software, such as Fox Harrell's GRIOT System, Snapdragon, created in Caitlin Fisher's AR Lab at York University, and Eugenio Tisselli's MidiPoet.

As a research tool, guide, and information resource for new media writers and creative writing teachers, Authoring Software highlights best practices and recommends appropriate tools to both veterans and new-comers to the field. Authoring Software's Editor in Chief is new media poet, writer, and editor, Judy Malloy.


The Authoring Software project was begun in conjunction with the 2008 Electronic Literature Organization Conference in Vancouver, Washington. Participants in the 2008 Electronic Literature in Europe Conference in Bergen, Norway were also invited to contribute. The project was featured at the Computers and Writing 2009 Online Sessions, hosted by the University of California at Davis. In 2010 a News and New Books section was added, as well as separate pages for Software Applications.

New Media Writing

New media writing (also known as hypertext literature, electronic literature, digital literature, e-poetry, born-digital literature, net narrative, net art, or interactive literature) is computer-mediated writing that uses computer technologies to create new narrative forms which may be hypertextual, multi-pathed, nonlinear, exploratory, interactive, software generated, kinetic, performative, collaborative, installation-based, augmented reality, immersive, social media-based, and/or inherently visual. It may also be multimedia, utilizing combinations of image, sound, text and/or video.

The process of creating new media literature is complex, and there are many choices of paths. Authoring Software looks at the creation of new media art as a whole process, also interviewing software creators and including other information about applications software and new media writing, such as publications, conferences, and software details. And it looks at the relationship between interface and content in new media writing with a focus on how the innovative use of authoring tools and the creation of new authoring tools have expanded digital writing/hypertext writing/net narrative practice.

return to Authoring Software

About Judy Malloy

Judy Malloy is a new media poet, who has been working in the field of computer-mediated literature for 25 years. In addition to editor of one of the first online publications devoted to art and technology, Leonardo Electronic News, (that later became Leonardo Electronic Almanac) she has experience as a database programmer and technical information specialist. She was also a core member of the mid 1980's influential software on art discussions on Art Com Electronic Network, of the Arts Wire team that worked with technology transfer in the arts beginning in the early years of the public Internet, and of the 2012 Critical Code Studies Working Group. She is the editor of the MIT Press compendium, Women, Art & Technology, and her papers include "Creative Approaches to New Media" (in Education and Technology: Critical Perspectives and Possible Futures, Lanham MD, Rowman and Littlefield, 2007) She is the also author of Judy Malloy, "Authoring Systems", in Johns Hopkins Guide to Digital Media and Textuality, edited by Lorie Emerson, Marie-Laure Ryan, and Benjamin Robertson. Johns Hopkins University Press,in press, 2013

A pioneer on the Internet and in electronic literature, Malloy followed a vision of hypertextual narrative that she began in the 1970's with experimental artist books created in card catalog and electro-mechanical structures, and in 1986 she wrote and programmed the seminal hyperfiction Uncle Roger. In the ensuing years she created a series of innovative hypernarratives works published by Eastgate and on the Internet, including its name was Penelope and l0ve0ne, the first selection in the Eastgate Web Workshop. In 1993, she was invited to Xerox PARC where she worked in Computer Science Laboratory as the first artist in their artist-in-residence program. In 1994, she created one of the first arts websites, Making Art Online. (currently hosted on the website of the Walker Art Center)

She has taught Social Media History and Poetics as Visiting Faculty at Princeton University, where she was Anschutz Distinguished Fellow in the Program in American Studies; at the San Francisco Art Institute, as digital arts faculty and at the Arizona State University Summer MFA Program at Deep Creek in Telluride, CO. From September 2014 - February 2015, she was a Visiting Lecturer in the Department of American Studies and Lecturer in the Council on Humanities at Princeton University, where she taught a Seminar on Electronic Literature: Lineage, Theory, and Contemporary Practice. As an arts writer, she has worked most notably as Editor of The New York Foundation for the Arts NYFA Current, (formerly Arts Wire Current)an Internet-based National journal on the arts and culture.

Her work has been exhibited and published internationally including the 2008 and 2010 Electronic Literature Conferences, San Francisco Art Institute, Tisch School of the Arts, NYU, Sao Paulo Biennial, the Los Angeles Institute for Contemporary Art, Boston Cyberarts Festival, The Walker Art Center, Visual Studies Workshop, Environmental Film Festival Ithaca, NY, Eastgate Systems, E.P. Dutton, Tanam Press, Seal Press, MIT Press, The Iowa Review Web, and Blue Moon Review. Parts of her recent work Paths of Memory and Painting have been exhibited or presented at the Berkeley Center for New Media Roundtable, the E-Poetry Festival at the Center of Contempory Art in Barcelona, and the University of California Irvine, as well as short listed for the Prix poesie-media 2009, Biennale Internationale des poetes en Val de Marne. She is currently creating a new work, From Ireland with Letters.

For information about the content | code | process project, email Judy Malloy at jmalloy@well.com


writers and artists
the process of creating
electronic literature
and Social Media-based narrative

Judith Adele
Social Media Narrative:
Avatar Repertory Theater

Mark Amerika

Bill Bly

James J. Brown, Jr.
Social Media Narrative:
Social Media Harassment

Jay Bushman
Social Media Narrative:
The Lizzie Bennet Diaries

J. R. Carpenter
__ The Broadside of a Yarn
; __ Entre Ville
__ Chronicles of Pookie and JR

M.D. Coverley
__ Egypt: The Book of
Going Forth by Day

__ Tin Towns

Robert Emmons
Social Media Narrative:

Caitlin Fisher

Chris Funkhouser

Joy Garnett
___Social Media Narrative:

Dene Grigar
__ 24-Hr. Micro-Elit
__ Social Media Narrative
__ Fallow Field

Fox Harrell

William Harris

Matt Held
___Social Media Narrative:
Facebook Paintings

Megan Heyward
__of day, of night
__The Secret Language of Desire

Adriene Jenik

Antoinette LaFarge
__ Demotic
Social Media Narrative

Deena Larsen
__ Marble Springs wiki
__Social Media Narrative
__ The Pines at Walden Pond

Judy Malloy

Mark C. Marino
Marginalia in the Library of Babel
and a show of hands

__Social Media Narrative:

Cathy Marshall
__Social Media Narrative
Who owns social media content?

María Mencía

Nick Montfort
__Nick Montfort and
Stephanie Strickland
Sea and Spar Between

Judd Morrissey

Karen O'Rourke

Regina Pinto

Andrew Plotkin
__ Hoist Sail for the Heliopause and Home
__ The Dreamhold

Aaron Reed

Scott Rettberg

Chris Rodley
__Social Media Narrative
The Magic Realism Bot

Emily Short
__ Bronze

Chindu Sreedharan
__Social Media Narrative

Silvia Stoyanova and Ben Johnston
The Zibaldone Hypertext Research Platform

Stephanie Strickland
__Nick Montfort and Stephanie Strickland
Sea and Spar Between

Katrin Tiidenberg
__Social Media Narrative
Identity on Tumblr

Eugenio Tisselli

Dan Waber

Marco Williams
The Migrant Trail

__Social Media Narrative
Rob Wittig - Netprov

Alice Wong
__Social Media Narrative


Mark Bernstein
__Interview with Mark Bernstein

Sonya Rapoport:
__Interview with
Sonya Rapoport

Stuart Moulthrop
__ Interview with
Stuart Moulthrop