Judy Malloy, Editor

T his month - December 2012 -- Computer-Mediated Collaborative Writing has been updated to include Mark Amerika, remixthebook.com; Anne Balsamo, Dale MacDonald, Jon Winet, Mark NeuCollins, Andy van Dam, Alex Hills, Donald Brinkman and others, Digital AIDS Memorial Quilt; Margaret Crane and Jon Winet, Democracy: The Last Campaign; Juan L. Gomez-Perales, The Electronic Mural Project; Ian Hatcher, Opening Sources; Chris Joseph, Christine Wilks, Randy Adams and others, R3/\/\1X\/\/0RX; (remixworx) Mimi Li and Wei Zhu, "Patterns of computer-mediated interaction in small writing groups using wikis", and Nick Montfort, Patsy Baudoin, John Bell, Ian Bogost, Jeremy Douglass, Mark C. Marino, Michael Mateas, Casey Reas, Mark Sample, and Noah Vawter, 10 PRINT CHR$(205.5+RND(1)); : GOTO 10.

Jesse Gilbert, sound; Helen Thorington, text, sound & photography; Marek Walczak, 3-D; Hal Eager and Martin Wattenberg, programming, Performance Diagram for Adrift. (1998-2001)
Adrift was an evolving multi-location Internet performance event that combined movement through 3D space, multiple narratives, and richly textured sound streaming between virtual and real geographies.


M any different kinds of works of literature, text works, or text-inclusive performances have been created in computer-mediated collaborative systems, and computer-mediated collaborative writing projects are an integral approach to new media writing. Examples range from a few writers working together with the same authoring system to global telecommunications projects where writers, artists and readers contribute to a work from many nodes around the world.

This Authoring Software resource on Computer-Mediated Collaborative Writing focuses on participatory narrative in which computer-mediation is an integral part of creating the work, such as a work of literature or text that begins with a computer program which accepts input from audience/reader participants and then shapes this input to create the final work. It also includes examples of works of literature of text which are collaboratively created by a group of writers working together on an authoring platform that to a certain extent mediates the work; as well as duets where computer-mediated collaborative interaction between the participants is integral to the work.

Maurice Benayoun, Jean-Pierre Balpe, and Jean-Baptiste Barrière, Labylogue. (2000)
A conversational labyrinth where the walls are lined with phrases composed, in real time with sound and words, in a virtual environment.
Labylogue, a tribute to Jorge Luis Borges' The Library of Babel, was a simulated three-dimensional large-scale visual poetry performance. Created from different French language speaking Internet nodes, it incorporated software-generated text, triggered by algorithmic recognition of words spoken by participants meeting virtually in the labyrinth. Maurice Benayoun explains that in art spaces and museums in three different French speaking cities -- Brussels, Lyon, and Dakar -- Labylogue developed eight main themes that invited visitors to meet in the labyrinth and as they conversed, immerse themselves in the accompanying text on the walls: "Cette exposition développe huit thèmes principaux qui conduisent les visiteurs à se rencontrer dans le labyrinthe et a se perdre dans le texte qui accompagne le dialogue en s'écrivant sur les murs qu'ils regardent. Labylogue existe simultanément dans trois villes francophones différentes: Bruxelles, Lyon, Dakar."

E xamples of early published or gallery-exhibited works in which an artist created and/or utilized program controlled/shaped a narrative that took input from many participants include Sonya Rapoport's Shoe Field, beginning in 1982, in which participants provided data about their shoes, resulting in and printouts of their "shoe-psyche": Fortner Anderson and Henry See's 1989 "itinerant software", The Odyssey, a disk-based work that traveled around the world gathering narrative input.

Networked strategies where writers, artists and in some cases readers/audience contributed to a work from many nodes include Roy Ascott's seminal La Plissure du Texte, a fairy tale told by many writers on early networked telecommunications systems; Maurice Benayoun, Jean-Pierre Balpe, and Jean-Baptiste Barrière's Labylogue; and Adriene Jenik and Charley Ten's OPEN_Borders Lounge, where -- in a collaboration between "local" and "distant" performance spaces -- participants are virtually joined at a local nightspot by artists from different places, including San Diego, Arizona, Spain, Portugal, Mexico, and Argentina. Examples of narrative works created on contemporary social networking situations, such as Twitter, are Dene Grigar's The 24-Hr. Micro-Elit Project and Mark Marino/LAinundacion's The LA Flood Project.

O n the World Wide Web, writers and artists have collaborated with audiences to create extended narratives in works such as Abbe Don's Bubbe's Back Porch; Douglas Davis' World's First Collaborative Sentence; and Flight Paths by Kate Pullinger and Chris Joseph.

Sometimes information intensive works use an offline process for gathering narrative or information from multiple offline participants or sources, although the work itself is displayed in a computer-mediated or hosted situation, for example, Antonio Muntadas' website for The File Room or the website for Life Cycles: Reflections of Change and A New Hope for Future Generations for which Jacalyn Lopez Garcia gathered personal histories of immigrant and migrant farm workers.

There are also works in which email is used to create a collaborative narrative, and then the writers create an authoring systems in which to house their work, such as Judy Malloy and Cathy Marshall's Forward Anywhere. (Eastgate, 1996) And in some cases, an authoring platform is used to bring together the work of many writers, such as William Gillespie, Scott Rettburg, and Dirk Stratton's web-based hypertext The Unknown. (The Electronic Literature Collection vol. 2)

Tim Perkis, Hub System Topology, reprinted from Tim Perkis, The HUB, an article written for Electronic Musician Magazine, 1999.
The Hub -- John Bischoff, Tim Perkis, Chris Brown, Scot Gresham-Lancaster, Mark Trayle, and Phil Stone -- is a computer network band started by Tim Perkis in 1985 in collaboration with composer John Bischoff. In Making Art Online, Perkis explains that "The idea was to find a way for composers working in the computer controlled electronic music medium to play together. Each composer has a computer controlled synthesizer system which is connected to the others on a local area network system of our own design. Composers designing pieces for this band generally only specify the data which is to be shared between players on the net. The result is a sort of enhanced musical improvisation, when the computers and players are all continually making musical decisions based upon what the others are doing."

C omputer controlled antecedents of contemporary computer-mediated collaboration include early works such as Efrem Lipkin, Mark Szpakowski, and Lee Felsenstein's Community Memory, (1972-1974) which although not precisely an artwork was important in the idea of community participation; Steve Wilson's Flashlight Theater at the Art Institute of Chicago in 1984 in which audience members shaped narrative by pointing flashlights at speaker boxes on the stage; collaborative locatory works, for example, Invisible Seattle; collaboratively-created nonfiction works, such as George Landow's The Victorian Web; curated exhibitions of participatory works, such as Artur Matuck's Reflux Project; and interactive works, such as Judy Malloy's You!, that was partially inspired by Christopher Strachey's 1952 love letter generator.

In the 1990's, collaborative narrative works were, among many others, Hypertext Hotel; (Robert Coover, editor) Carolyn Guyer and Martha Petry's Izme Pass; (Writing on the Edge, 1991) Deena Larson's Marble Springs (Eastgate Systems, 1993) PROJECTARTNET, a San Diego-based community arts networking project (hosted on Arts Wire) that brought children from schools in immigrant neighborhoods online to create a community history; Tony Oursler, Constance DeJong, Stephen Vitiello: Fantastic Prayers; (Dia Art Foundation's first project for the web) Anna Couey's Imagining the Information Age; Jesse Gilbert, Helen Thorington, Marek Walczek, Hal Eager, and Martin Wattenberg's Adrift; the TrAce Noon Quilt; and Karen O'Rourke's Paris Réseau, which was created using the combined and collaborative experience of participants who live in Paris and participants who imagine or write about Paris.

Contemporary works of computer-mediated collaborative literature and text include Noah Wardip-Fruin's Screen; (with Josh Carroll, Robert Coover, Shawn Greenlee, Andrew McClain, and Ben "Sascha" Shine) Nick Montfort and Stephanie Strickland's Sea and Spar Between; Judd Morrissey and Lori Talley's My Name Is Captain, Captain; (Eastgate Systems, 2002) Regina Pinto's AlphaAlpha; Kate Pullinger and Chris Joseph's Flight Paths; Sharon Daniel's Narrative Contingencies, The Fort Vancouver Mobile; (project coordinator and managers Brett Oppegaard, Greg Shine, Dene Grigar, Jon Nelson, and Brady Berkenmeier) Shilpa Gupta's Blessed Bandwidth project which "acts as a space for visitors to reflect on religion and its role in a world that is often divided by faith"; (Intermedia Art, Tate) and Ken Goldberg and Gil Gershoni's Are We There Yet?, a 2011 new media installation at the Contemporary Jewish Museum in San Francisco.

This Authoring Software resource is an in-progress tool, which invites suggestions for additional works and links. The current iteration includes statements created for Authoring Software; links to contemporary and historical works, including those mentioned in this introduction; and a link bibliography of papers on computer-mediated collaborative literature and art.

Computer-Mediated Collaborative Writing: Works
- Authoring Software Statements

Dene Grigar:
On the Art of Producing a Phenomenally Short Fiction Collection over the Net using Twitter: The 24-Hr. Micro-Elit Project
Process: interactive and collaborative strategies for the creation of narrative

"The 24-Hr. Micro-Elit Project centers on a collection of 24 stories about life in an American city in the 21st Century and involves 140 characters or less delivered -- that is, "tweeted" -- on Twitter over a 24 hr. period. The launch date of the project was Friday, August 21, 2009 beginning 12 AM PST. Each hour until 11 PM, I posted one story, a method of delivery I chose so that others from other parts of the world who wished to participate could do so at a time convenient for them. These "participants" were encouraged to do more than simply read and respond to my work; they were actually invited to tweet their own stories. During the 24 hours of the project as I posted my stories, I also monitored and collected the participants' stories, adding them to the Project Blog. The project resulted in what can be considered an international anthology of micro-fiction comprised of over 85 stories and submitted by over 25 participants from five countries. In this essay, I address assumptions and viewpoints surrounding the art of producing a phenomenally short fiction collection over the net using Twitter." ...more"

Antoinette LaFarge
Software: YIN MOO, Max/MSP

"All of my mixed-reality performance works use different authoring strategies and tools. In general, however, all share a focus on multi-authoring, on improvisation in various forms, and on a fluid relationship between creation of text and creation of other forms, including software, vocals, sound, video, and movement.

Perhaps the best introduction to my authorial practices is a 2004/2006 mixed-reality performance work entitled "Demotic". The essential idea behind "Demotic" was to have a single stage actor and two sound artists channeling, in real time, many other voices and information sources, some from real space, and some from the Internet. I conceived it with director Robert Allen, and we co-created it with actor Tracey A. Leigh, sound artists Maria de los Angeles Esteves and Jeff Ridenour, and a group of online performers known as the Plaintext Players." ...more

Nick Montfort and Stephanie Strickland
Sea and Spar Between
Software: JavaScipt

Using the poetry of Emily Dickinson and Moby Dick by Herman Melville to analyze congruences of language and style in approximately the same era, Montfort and Strickland's Sea and Spar Between, which was first published on Dear Navigator, is a cyberliterary approach to 19th century American literature, as well as, in its unexpected, yet at times evocative combination of Dickinson and Melville's works, a look at different 19th century approaches to nature and the relationship of humans to nature. Indeed, the authors describe Sea and Spar Between as "a poetry generator which defines a space of language populated by a number of stanzas comparable to the number of fish in the sea, around 225 trillion."

A core addition to the understanding of how language in code can create a greater understanding of the work and at the same time have literary qualities, Sea and Spar Between can also be looked at as a collaboration between two contemporary new media writers and two 19th century writers. ...more

Judd Morrissey
The Last Performance [dot org]
Software: HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP, MySQL, Drupal

"The Last Performance is a constraint-based collaborative writing, archiving and text-visualization project responding to the theme of lastness in relation to architectural forms, acts of building, a final performance, and the interruption (that becomes the promise) of community.

...The structure of the project is taken from my research with Goat Island into double buildings, a phrase we are using to describe spaces that have housed and survived multiple historical identities, with a specific concern for the functions of churches, mosques, and museums. The central structure of The Last Performance is a virtual dome, based on the cupola of a particular Croatian double building, a construction of circles within circles consisting of 4,680 glass lenses. The lenses of the cupola have been transposed as compositional spaces that will be populated until the dome is complete. The dome writings are also processed as source material to create a constantly evolving textual landscape. This project was conceived in response to the work of the Chicago-based performance collective, Goat Island, (of which I am a part) and their decision, after 20 years of practice, to create a last performance. The electronic work is evolving over two years in parallel with the creation and performance of the company's final performance work, The Lastmaker." ...more

Karen O'Rourke
Process: interactive and collaborative strategies for the creation of narrative

Karen O'Rourke, whose work includes telecommunications projects, information art, and artists software, has created a coherent, innovative body of work in experimental new media narrative. Exploring mapping and the experience of place using collaborative strategies, her projects include City Portraits which involved participants in 11 world cities creating "portraits" of their towns through the exchange of images and Paris Réseau, which explores the City of Paris with texts, images and sounds. City Portraits was documented in the book Art-Réseaux. (Karen O'Rourke, editor Paris, éditions du CERAP, 1992) along with other collaborative projects led by members of the group Art-Réseaux, while Paris Réseau took several forms. First an installation/performance in 1994, it was later realized as a website and a screen-based installation, then as a CD-Rom Paris Réseau/Network (2000) with an interface that provides multiple entrances to the work, allowing a parallel and layered exploration of the city.

In her statement for Authoring Software, she continues her vision of urban space and collaborative text works with a description of a project created for the UK and Barcelona-based Dispatx Art Collective. ...more

Regina Pinto
Software: Adobe Premiere Elements 7.0, Adobe Photoshop Elements 6.0,
Dreamweaver 8.0, Flash 8.0, Photoshop 7.0 and Sound Forge 9.0

Regina Pinto believes that one of the good characteristics of globalization is that it allows the exchange of national and international artistic experiences. Much of her work uses humor, unusual juxtapositions and interesting ideas to look at global trends, for instance, The Snowmen Congress in Rio in which conceptions of snowmen were solicited from all over the world and exhibited on the Internet, presented in lectures and performances on a stage on Ipanema Beach -- with an emphasis on Global warming and its impact on the fate of snowmen.

The AlphaAlpha project is a classic collaborative work in that participants were invited to create within the context of an interesting idea, and the producer incorporated their work in a framework that in this case includes texts and visual implementations of the letter "A". The project both alludes to the vibrant South American tradition of visual poetry and calls attention to how text can be represented on the World Wide Web. Participants were from all over the world including Brazil, USA, Canada, Chile, France, UK, Argentina, Finland, Croatia, Serbia, Germany, Uruguay, Spain, and Mexico. ...more

Kate Pullinger
Flight Paths by Kate Pullinger and Chris Joseph
Software: CommentPress, Netvibes

Written in 2008, the statement about Kate Pullinger and Chris Joseph's Flight Paths looks at issues of authoring software choices in the creation of this work and in particular at the difficulties of of creating a multimedia open access work.

To see the current work, visit the Flight Paths website

To read about the beginning stages of this networked novel, visit Kate Pullinger's Authoring Software statement about Flight Paths.

Nanette Wylde
The Qi Project
Software: Flash, Final Cut, Perl, CGI

"The Qi Project is an inquiry into the nature of humanity and what it means to be human at this moment in time. Qi is a Chinese word which literally means 'air' or 'breath.' It is considered to be the circulating life force. The Qi Project exists as (1) a gallery installation (2) a website (3) a process-based intervention. The gallery installation includes: two channel video, text and audience participation. The website: represents the interventions; includes elements in exhibition; and invites participation. The intervention is the process and residue of questioning: What does it mean to be human? What is humanity? This was done via postcards, email, telephone, website, and in front of a camcorder. The Project was launched at The Krause Center for Innovation Art Gallery in Los Altos Hills, California in February 2008. Continuing is the companion website." ...more

More Contemporary Computer-Mediated Collaborative Narratives and Performances

  1. Mark Amerika

  2. Anne Balsamo, Dale MacDonald, Jon Winet, Mark NeuCollins, Andy van Dam, Alex Hills, Donald Brinkman and others
    Digital AIDS Memorial Quilt
    __ AIDS Memorial Quilt (Microsoft)

  3. Maurice Benayoun, Jean-Pierre Balpe, and Jean-Baptiste Barrière

  4. Serge Bouchardon
    Mes Mots
    __ Mes Mots/My Words
    (ELMCIP Knowledge Base)

  5. Barbara Campbell
    1001 Nights Cast

  6. Shu Lea Chang
    Bowling Alley
    Walker Art Center

  7. Anna Couey
    Imagining the Information Age: Stories/Visions

  8. Margaret Crane and Jon Winet
    Democracy: The Last Campaign, Walker Art Center

  9. Sharon Daniel
    Narrative Contingencies
    __ Sharon Daniel, Daniel Langlois Foundation

  10. Douglas Davis
    World's First Collaborative Sentence

  11. Jacalyn Lopez Garcia
    Life Cycles: Reflections of Change and A New Hope for Future Generations

  12. Jesse Gilbert, Helen Thorington, Marek Walczek, Hal Eager, and Martin Wattenberg

  13. William Gillespie and Nick Montfort
    The Executor, Spineless Books

  14. William Gillespie, Scott Rettberg, Dirk Stratton, and Frank Marquardt
    The Unknown (Electronic Literature Collection, v. 2)
    __ The Unknown
    (ELMCIP Knowledge Base)

  15. Global Voices

  16. Ken Goldberg, Director
    in collaboration with researchers at the US Department of State, students and faculty at the Berkeley Center for New Media
    Opinion Space: A Global Experiment in Open Dialogue

  17. Ken Goldberg and Gil Gershoni
    Are We There Yet?
    exhibiition: Jewish Contemporary Museum, San Francisco
    March 31-July 31, 2011

  18. Juan L. Gomez-Perales
    The Electronic Mural Project 1992

  19. Sheila Gupta
    Blessed Bandwidth
    (Intermedia Art, Tate)

  20. Carolyn Guyer,
    "Hi-Pitched Voices", (Making Art Online)

  21. Carolyn Guyer
    Mother Millennia

  22. Ian Hatcher
    Opening Sources

  23. Zuzana Husarova and Lubomir Panak
    __ Pulse (Electronic Literature Directory)

  24. Adriene Jenik, Charley Ten, and others
    OPEN_Borders Lounge

  25. Chris Joseph, Christine Wilks, Randy Adams and others,
    R3/\/\1X\/\/0RX (remixworx)

  26. Antoinette LaFarge and Robert Allen
    Virtual Live

  27. Antoinette LaFarge and Robert Allen
    The Roman Forum Project

  28. Deena Larson
    Marble Springs
    Cambridge, MA: Eastgate, 1993.

  29. Judy Malloy and Cathy Marshall
    Forward Anywhere
    Cambridge, MA: Eastgate, 1996
    __ website

  30. Judy Malloy and Sonya Rapoport
    Objective Connections

  31. Judy Malloy, Tom Igoe, Chris Abraham, Tim Collins, Anna Couey, Valerie Gardiner, Joseph Wilson, and Doug Cohen
    name is scibe

  32. Mark Marino/LAinundacion
    The LA Flood Project

  33. Joseph Matheny
    The Last Book: A MediaKaos Work in Progress
    (Electronic Literature Directory)

  34. Nick Montfort
    Taroko Gorge
    with interventions by Scott Rettberg, J.R. Carpenter, Talan Memmott, Eric Snodgrass, Mark Sample, Maria Engberg, Flourish Klink, Andrew Plotkin, Brendan Howell, Adam Sylvain, Leonardo Flores, Alireza Mahzoon, Sonny Rae Tempest, Helen Burgess, and Judy Malloy

  35. Nick Montfort, Patsy Baudoin, John Bell, Ian Bogost, Jeremy Douglass,
    Mark C. Marino, Michael Mateas, Casey Reas, Mark Sample, and Noah Vawter
    10 PRINT CHR$(205.5+RND(1)); : GOTO 10, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012

  36. Nick Montfort and William Gillespie
    2002: A Palindrome Story
    Spineless Books

  37. Judd Morrissey and Mark Jeffery
    The Precession: An 80 Foot Long Internet Art Performance Poem
    The Jackman Goldwasser Catwalk Gallery
    December 21, 2010 - March 20, 2011

  38. Judd Morrissey and Lori Talley
    My Name Is Captain, Captain
    Cambridge, MA: Eastgate, 2002

  39. Brett Oppegaard, Project coordinator; Co-Project Managers: Greg Shine, Dene Grigar, Jon Nelson, Brady Berkenmeier
    The Fort Vancouver Mobile

  40. New Deal Network
    Been Here so Long: American Slave Narratives

  41. Tony Oursler, Constance DeJong, Stephen Vitiello
    Fantastic Prayers
    (Dia Art Foundation's first project for the Web)

  42. Tim Perkis
    The Hub, Electronic Musician Magazine, 1999
    __Tim Perkis, The Hub - John Bischoff, Tim Perkis, Chris Brown, Scot Gresham-Lancaster, Mark Trayle, Phil Stone

  43. trAce
    Noon Quilt Book
    designed,'stitched' and maintained by Teri Hoskin
    from an idea by Sue Thomas;
    perl scripts: Ali Graham

  44. Noah Wardrip-Fruin with Josh Carroll, Robert Coover, Shawn Greenlee, Andrew McClain, and Ben "Sascha" Shine

  45. Christopher and Olga Werby
    The Company Therapist

  46. Rob Wittig/Scott Rettberg
    Blue Company
    Kind of Blue

  47. Krzysztof Wodiczko
    ...OUT OF HERE: The Veterans Project
    November 4, 2009 - March 28, 2010
    Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston

  48. Tim Wright and Rob Bevan
    Online Caroline
    __ Online Caroline
    (ELMCIP Knowledge Base)

  49. Liangjie Xia
    You Don't Know Me

Computer-Mediated Collaborative Narratives and Performances - Historical

  1. Robert Adrian
    The World in 24 Hours
    Ars Electronica, 27-28 September 27-28, 1982
    (Ars Electronica Archive)

  2. Fortner Anderson and Henry See
    The Odyssey

  3. ARTEX (Artists' Electronic Exchange System)

  4. Roy Ascott
    La Plissure du Texte
    December 11-23, 1983 (ARTEX)
    __ La Plissure du Texte
    (Walker Art Center)

  5. Roy Ascott, Don Foresta, Tom Sherman, Tomaso Trini, Maria Grazia Mattei, and Robert Adrian X
    Planetary Network
    Venice Biennale, 1986
    (Medien Kunst Netz)
    Planetary Network
    (Database of Virtual Art)

  6. Bill Bartlett
    Toronto, April 1, 1979

  7. Robert Coover et al
    Hypertext Hotel

  8. DAX (Digital Art Exchange)

  9. Carolyn Guyer and Martha Petry
    Izme Pass
    (The Electronic Labyrinth)

  10. Invisible Seattle

  11. George Landow, creator, and others
    The Victorian Web

  12. Efrem Lipkin, Mark Szpakowski, and Lee Felsenstein
    Community Memory
    1972 - 1974, Berkeley and San Francisco, California

  13. Judy Malloy, producer
    Bad Information
    __ Making Art Online
    (Walker Art Center)
    __ You!

  14. Antonio Muntadas
    The File Room
    __ The File Room

  15. Sonya Rapoport
    Objects on my Dresser
    __(Objective Connections)
    (Spaces of Life: The Art of Sonya Rapoport
    Mills College Museum of Art, January 18 - March 11, 2012)
    ___ Shoe Field
    1982 at Berkeley Computer Systems
    (Objective Connections)
    __ Shoe Field
    (Pairing of Polarities, Kala Art Institute, March 4 - April 9, 2011)

  16. Norman White
    __ Hearsay
    (Walker Art Center)

Papers, Discussions, and Exhibitions

  1. Brian Andreas, Hall of Whispers: A Virtual Opera, Leonardo 26:3, 1993. pp. 256-257.

  2. Roy Ascott, Telematic Embrace, Visionary Theories of Art, Technology, and Consciousness. Edward A. Shanken, Editor. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2007.

  3. Roy Ascott and Carl Eugene Loeffler, Guest Editors, Connectivity: Art and Interactive Telecommunications, Leonardo 24:2, 1991.

  4. Elif Ayiter, Max Moswitzer, and Selavy Oh, "LPDT2": La Plissure du Texte 2, ISEA 2011 Istanbul, September 14-21, 2010

  5. Center for Digital Storytelling
    Case Studies in Arts, Culture, & History

  6. Anna Couey, "Art Works as Organic Communications Systems," in Connectivity: Art and Interactive Telecommunications, Roy Ascott and Carl Eugene Loeffler,eds, Leonardo 24:2:127-130.

  7. Anna Couey and Judy Malloy, "A Conversation with Sonya Rapoport (on the Interactive Conference on Arts Wire)",in Terri Cohn, ed., Pairing of Polarities: The Life and Art of Sonya Rapoport, Berkeley, CA: Heyday Press, in press, 2012

  8. Anna Couey And Judy Malloy, "A Conversation with Hank Bull on the Interactive Art Conference on Arts Wire", November 1996

  9. Jeff Gates, "Art for the Information Age: The In Our Path and ArtFBI Web Sites", "Words on Works", Leonardo, 1996

  10. Jo-Anne Green, exhibition curator, Mixed Realities - An International Networked Art Exhibition and Symposium, New Radio and Performing Arts/Turbulence, Exhibition: February 7 - April 15, 2008, includes Caterwaul by Pierre Proske, with technical assistance from Artem Baguinski and Brigit Lichtenegger.

  11. Carolyn Guyer and Martha Petry, "Notes for Izme Pass Exposé" in Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Nick Montfort, eds., The New Media Reader CD, packaged with Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Nick Montfort, eds., The New Media Reader. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  12. Jennifer Hall, "Netdrama: an Online Environmental Scheme" in Roy Ascott and Carl Eugene Loeffler, Guest Editors, Connectivity: Art and Interactive Telecommunications, Leonardo 24:2, 1991. pp. 193-194

  13. Caroline Haythornthwaite, Guest Editor, "Special Theme: Computer-Mediated Collaborative Practices", Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10:4, July 2005

  14. Kathy Rae Huffman, "Face Settings: an International Co-cooking and Communication Project" by Eva Wohlgemuth and Kathy Rae Huffman in Judy Malloy, Editor, Women, Art & Technology. Cambridge, MA, 2003.pp. 398-411

  15. Konstantino Kapetaneas, Designing a Multi-User Networked Narrative Experience, February 11, 2012

  16. Antoinette LaFarge, "A World Exhilirating and Wrong: Theatrical Improvisation on the Internet", Leonardo, 28:5, 1995 pp. 415-422.

  17. Joe Lambert, Digital Storytelling: Capturing Lives, Creating Communities, Berkeley, CA: Center for Digital Storytelling, 2010. 3rd Edition

  18. Craig Harris, ed, Art and Innovation - the Xerox PARC Artist-in-Residence Program, Cambridge, MA MIT Press, 1999.

  19. Mark J. W. Lee, "How Can 3d Virtual Worlds Be Used To Support Collaborative Learning? An Analysis Of Cases From The Literature"

  20. Mimi Li and Wei Zhu
    Patterns of computer-mediated interaction in small writing groups using wikis, Computer Assisted Language Learning, 2011:1-22

  21. Carl Loeffler, "Telecomputing und die digitale Kultur", Ars Electronica 1989, Ars Electronica Arkiv

  22. Judy Malloy, "Interview with Sonya Rapoport", Authoring Software, 2010

  23. Judy Malloy, "Thirty Minutes in the Late Afternoon", ART COM Magazine, October 42, 10:8, October 1990.

  24. Judy Malloy and Cathy Marshall, "Notes on an Exchange Between Intersecting Lives", in Craig Harris, ed., In Search of Innovation - the Xerox PARC PAIR Experiment, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. pp.118-143

  25. Bruce Mason and Sue Thomas, "A Million Penguins Research Report", Institute of Creative Technologies, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK, April 24, 2008

  26. M. Mateas, and A. Stern, "Façade: An Experiment in Building a Fully-Realized Interactive Drama," 2003 Game Developers Conference, 2003.

  27. Artur Matuck, The Reflux Project - event of a geotronic revolution

  28. Artur Matuck, Technologies for Interauthorship, A Lecture by Artur Matuck

  29. Tom Meyer, David Blair, and Suzanne Hader, "A MOO-Based Collaborative Hypermedia System for WWW"
    discussion of the Hypertext MOO including Hypertext Hotel (begun by Robert Coover in conjunction with his Hypertext Fiction Workshop at Brown University and ported to Storyspace) Carolyn Guyer's Hi-Pitched Voices, and David Blair's WAXweb

  30. Gil MinaMora, "Hidden Bearers: An Exquisite Corpse Online", in Roy Ascott and Carl Eugene Loeffler, Guest Editors, Connectivity: Art and Interactive Telecommunications, Leonardo 24:2, 1991. p. 234

  31. Dana Moser, A brief outline of early artistic activity by Dana Moser involving digital technology

  32. Karen O'Rourke, "Art Projects on the Web: The ArtChivist site"

  33. Scott Rettberg, All Together Now: Collective Knowledge, Collective Narratives, and Architectures of Participation , The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, Arts and Humanities, Literature Program

  34. Warren Sack and Michael Dale, Street Stories: Designing Networked, Narrative Places of Community. Digital Arts / New Media Program University of California, Santa Cruz

  35. Joyce Slaton, "Remembering Community Memory, The Berkeley beginnings of online community", San Francisco Gate, December 13, 2001

  36. Carol Stakenas, "Crossing the Threshold: Examining the Public Space of the Web Through Day Without Art Web Action", in Judy Malloy, Editor, Women, Art & Technology. Cambridge, MA, 2003. pp. 492-501

  37. Stephanie Strickland and Nick Montfort, "Collaborations in E-Lit", American Book Review 32:6, September/October 2011. pp. 6-7

  38. Jill Walker, Distributed Narrative: Telling Stories Across Networks Presented at AoIR 5.0, Brighton, September 21, 2004

  39. Jill Walker, "How I was played by Online Caroline" In Pat Harrigan and Noah Wardrip Fruin, eds. First Person: New Media as Story, Performance and Game, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004. pp. 302-309.

  40. Sha Xin Wei, Stanford University, "MediaWeaver { A Distributed Media Authoring System for Networked Scholarly Workspaces" June 2, 1997

  41. Christine Wilks, Toni LeBusque, Jo Howard, Chris Meade, Alison Norrington, Kirsty McGill and Sue Thomas, "Living with A Million Penguins: inside the wiki-novel", The Guardian Book Blog, March 2007

  42. Rob Wittig, "Shyness, Cushions, and Food Case Studies in American Creative Communities", dichtung-digital, 2012.
    For information about the Authoring Software project, email Judy Malloy at jmalloy@well.com
    Last update, December 7, 2012

Authoring Software

Authoring Software
Tools and Applications

The Electronic Manuscript.

Writers and Artists
Talk about Their Work
and the Software They
use to Create Their Work

Mark Amerika
Stefan Muller Arisona
Mark Bernstein: __Interview wirh Mark Bernstein
Alan Bigelow
Bill Bly
Jay Bushman
J. R. Carpenter
__ Chronicles of Pookie and JR
__ Entre Ville
M.D. Coverley
__ Egypt: The Book of
Going Forth by Day

__ Tin Towns
Steve Ersinghaus
Caitlin Fisher
Chris Funkhouser
Susan M. Gibb
Dene Grigar
__ 24-Hr. Micro-Elit
__ Fallow Field
Fox Harrell
Dylan Harris
William Harris
Ian Hatcher
Megan Heyward
Adriene Jenik
Chris Joseph
Rob Kendall
Antoinette LaFarge
Deena Larsen
Donna Leishman
Judy Malloy
Mark C. Marino
Ethan Miller
Nick Montfort
__Lost One
__Nick Montfort and
Stephanie Strickland
Sea and Spar Between

Judd Morrissey
Stuart Moulthrop
__Under Language
and Deep Surface

__ Interview with
Stuart Moulthrop

Alexander Mouton
Karen O'Rourke
Regina Pinto
Andrew Plotkin
Kate Pullinger
Sonya Rapoport:
__Interview with
Sonya Rapoport

Aaron Reed
Scott Rettberg
Jim Rosenberg
Stephanie Strickland
__Nick Montfort and Stephanie Strickland
Sea and Spar Between

__Stephanie Strickland and Cynthia Lawson Jaramillo
Vniverse and slippingglimpse

Sue Thomas
Eugenio Tisselli
Noah Wardrip-Fruin
Joel Weishaus
Nanette Wylde